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Manuelli, Todd R. James B. Davies, Robinson, Redding, Sethupathy, Guru, A science mapping analysis ," European Management Journal , Elsevier, vol. Phelan, Martin, John P. John P. Martin, Diego A. Elsayed, A. Evidence from University Technical Colleges in England ," ,. Edouard Ribes, Lee, Yong Suk, Musa Orak, Eliza C. Forsythe, Eliza Forsythe, Kauhanen, Antti, David J.
Deming, Marchand, Joseph, Jonathan A. Bradler, Christiane, Hanushek, Eric A. Eric A. Gorkem Bostanci, Kevin S. Adam James Berg, Joshua D. Hall, Charles R. Hulten, David Jose Jaume, Knoblach, Michael, Irene Brambilla, Migration, jobs, and welfare ," Journal of Monetary Economics , Elsevier, vol. Henry R. Hyatt, Henry R. Tudorache, Maria-Daniela, Andrea Waddle, Alexander Cuntz, Joel Kariel, Matthias Haslberger, Kanbur, Ravi, Alex W. Koster, Hans R.
Yuichiro Matsumoto, Riccardo Zago, Handel, Meir Russ, Machin, Stephen, Peiris, Marcel Steffen Eckardt, Daniil Kashkarov, Maliranta, Mika, Jain Ritika, Rostislav Kapeliushnikov, Parmeter, Zimmerman, Seth D. K ," European Economic Review , Elsevier, vol. Felbermayr, Ross, Matthew B. Richard Holt, Jonas Loebbing, Bellmann, Lutz, Kok, Suzanne, Andreas Irmen, World Bank, Jensen, Bjarne S. Slonimczyk, Fabian, Rahman, Kim, Gueyon, Alan J. Koehler, Ryan Michaels, Daishin Yasui, David Kunst, Seifried, Mareike, Francesco Caselli, The opposite would be fragmentation or fracture, and I have done it simply for practical and pragmatic reasons: in order to reduce inefficiency and use any improvement in efficiency for the betterment and the prosperity of the extreme poor and the worse off.
Integration in this context does not respond to any ideological, partisan or nationalistic globalist sentiment, nor does it embrace a purely globalization-oriented approach in which the reduction of certain transaction costs fundamentally benefits certain vested interests connected to the better off the shareholders and the supranational corporation, as it is for instance the case in the elimination of tariffs in the context of the trade negotiation rounds of the World Trade Expected Publication December Organization, or it is the case in the sophistication of the international financial architecture with its myriad of tax havens in places like Mauritius or the Cayman Islands.
What does integration mean? Integration means market unity, standardization, identification of benchmarks that may enable peer-to-peer comparison, unification of policies whenever possible, resource pooling whether hard or soft, and the elimination of barriers. Integration is far more possible today thanks to technology than it was in the aftermath of World War II.
However radical change seems only feasible when atrocities justify it in order to avoid repetition. In order for integration to work first of all a phenomenal educational effort needs to be undertaken if barriers are to fall naturally. Tearing down mental barriers defying stereotypes and fears of one another will automatically enable tearing down physical barriers. The opposite would probably require war.
In order for integration to work generosity and thus the implementation of redistribution policies must take off. Integration does oftentimes not happen because certain agents and players the intermediaries oppose and sometimes impose their presence through legislation or the use of force. Certain intermediaries are still necessary today, but perhaps a majority is not.
The intermediary oftentimes holds a competitive advantage which justifies its very own existence. An intermediary can become a parasite. Integration does not oftentimes occur because of difference of race, ethnicity or religion. In many countries ethnic or religious minorities maintain a pulse with the majority for a chunk of the cake.
A political message based on the defence of the rights of minorities and also of majorities can then be manipulated to design a political campaign of hatred and confrontation which is detrimental to society as a whole and provokes a phenomenal increase of the transaction costs. We would all be better off if mutual acceptance and understanding between the minority and the majority was promoted through education.
No intermediaries would as a result be able to extract a political competitive advantage which would justify their existence. Integration does not oftentimes occur because of fear. Fear emerges because of ignorance and the lack of knowledge.
Sometimes the elites may have an interest in limiting the learning ability and capability of the masses. The elites can then institute a message of fear in society on which they can justify the use of force in the form of armed conflict, the use of tariff retaliation in the case of a trade war. Integration has been taking place at the supranational level in areas such as free trade or the free flow of financial flows. Developed countries maintain immigration flows under a very tight control.
Whereas free trade is encouraged particularly in goods and services exported by industrial countries, barriers of entry continue to exist in agricultural or farming products through subsidies in Europe and the United States or grounded on food security reasons. Integration will not happen overnight. We need to devise a strategy in which total integration occurs over the course or our lifetime through Total integration would imply the possibility of a Global Constitution for the first time in history.
Total integration would imply that diversity turns into an asset and is not used as a weapon by the elites to instigate fear in the masses. How can global integration occur if fundamental income and quality of life gaps remain even today at the national level? Inequality has continued to increase in many developed and developing countries. The better off are increasingly less.
The worse off are increasingly more. Integration does not happen as it would happen in a country or a society with a large medium class. Integration has not been included as a priority in the rhetoric of many leaders. For instance, whether Scotland in the United Kingdom, Catalonia in Spain or Flanders in Belgium represent examples in which a political trend has developed which justifies fragmentation or fracture.
For instance many Latin American leaders continue to perpetuate a discourse of animosity against their neighbor in spite of the fact that Latin Americans share a language, a religion, a history and a tradition and could potentially be united as the United States of America is in the north. We allow past pitfalls to continue to divide us as a global society and a united people the human family.
Integration includes cooperation. Only extreme supranational cooperation could converge towards total integration. There must be cooperation among countries. Cooperation needs to incorporate mutual understanding and generosity. If priorities were global our leadership would present policies that benefit the median voter globally. Because priorities continue to remain national, there are conflicting and clashing ambitions among different players globally which seek to instigate a policy which will benefit a certain national corporate or citizen interest.
The European Union has promoted a free trade zone in which internal tariffs have been eliminated and the import and export of goods and services is thus free elimination of transaction costs. The Euro-Zone has embraced a single currency the Euro which has eliminated dozens of currencies and as a result currency risk and the possible emergence of depreciation.
Whereas economic integration seems to anticipate political integration, the latter does not naturally occur. There seems to be an interest in individual countries to continue to maintain sovereignty on certain areas such as defence or diplomacy. The European Union has a single market however bank accounts continue to be national and mobile telephony roaming charges are still common.
These attempts are typically extremely slow and inefficient, including dozens of summits and declarations leading to very modest and minor results, at best. The European integration has taken place arguably because of two world wars and the pressure to not repeat a third episode which would be disastrous. Integration implies the reduction of transaction costs and the emergence of economies of scale. The United States in the twentieth century or China in the twenty-first century are examples of large markets where federal legislation and management may reduce transaction costs enabling the emergence of economies of scale and of competitive advantages.
There are 27 different agencies for each of these Expected Publication December areas in the European Union, with 27 different world views and no consensus whatsoever possible. The world is in dire straits. Its population has tripled since World War II and will grow to ten billion by Extreme differences in income and quality of life remain.
There is a demographic dividend that is being lost because billions remain unemployed. Global hunger has only been very timidly mitigated by the extraordinary job of the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Food Program. Billions remain uneducated, without access to drinkable water or sanitation facilities. There are severe shortages ahead in water, energy or the food supply. Yet in this world of ours major corporations continue to manufacture cars running on oil which we no longer need to maintain shareholders happy and industrial workers in developed nations employed, feeding increasing levels of stress, congestion and pollution which are making the lives of hundreds of millions unbearable in cities like Delhi.
What a wonderful world we could have. We have the knowledge, we have the technology, and we have the funding. But we are not ready because we have forgotten to embrace integration as a top priority. The elites in many small and medium countries are of course not interested because the lack of integration justifies their very own existence. In the meantime we will continue to remain afraid. The fear of the unknown will kill us all, no questions asked, guaranteed.
As Thomas Friedman wonderfully wrote in , the world is flat, but almost exclusively for the better off. If I were running for president of the World, integration would be my top priority. Because integration would allow the release of trillions of dollars to invest in the provision of education and healthcare, to invest in the inputs that would trigger a Green Revolution in Subsaharan Africa.
I am after all a world citizen first and foremost. Long live the world A Fiction State is the aggregation and integration of at least two nation-states embracing a philosophy of maximum integration in the shortest time interval. As such it belongs in the realm of the imaginary and is only a long-term possible future -eventually the very best- among the many possible.
In I published The Monfort Plan, a year action plan to redefine capitalism and eradicate extreme poverty. The nation-state shapes identities and manages societies. It gives a sense of belonging and allows individuals to embrace a set of values.
Nations and nationalities namely ethnicities coexist in certain more culturally diverse countries. Nation-states can be large and well managed but also small, redundant and inefficient. The European Union is undoubtedly the best instance of a successful integration episode the World has seen since the conclusion of World War II. Integration is allowing European nations to eliminate certain national competences to federalize at the European level, a process that the United States accomplished way before during the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries.
Many regions of the World have begun integration processes that are however rather slow. Mercosur in Latin America, ASEAN in South East Asia, or SADC in Southern Africa are good examples of organizations that aim at repeating the somewhat success story of the European Union, including steps towards integration such as trade liberalization, free circulation of merchandise and individuals and perhaps most important the single currency.
Expected Publication December If the best possible World two hundred years from now is one without extreme poverty, one of Eutopia Universal Healthcare, Education, Water and Sanitation and Cornucopia Food Abundance , it must necessarily be one without borders, with a World capital territory, with global institutions headquartered in an extremely poor country and a World parliament.
The immediate question which emerges is how will the transition from the current state of affairs to a borderless World take place. My answer is through a very powerful narrative vehicle, naturally the Fiction State. A Fiction State must not only be identified and designed, it must then be presented to the audience society to convey its power and appeal. What are these Fiction States? How many are there and what nation-states do they integrate in what geographies?
How will their emergence reduce or eliminate transaction costs? How will their consolidation trigger pool-resourcing and economies of scale? How can they play a role of scenarios in the narrative paradigm where a fiction is designed and presented to the audience as the best possible future, to accomplish through entertainment and persuasion the difficult task of conviction?
Once a Fiction State is defined and presented, how will it be implemented? What new governance paradigm -which I have called post-politics- has to be manufactured and who will be its protagonists? New governance paradigms better and alternative to politics -so tied to the nation-state- must emerge in order for societies to move forward faster and less dramatically.
The current political rhetoric at the national level is oftentimes one of division and differentiation. A new narrative must emerge to feed and fulfill the thirst and hunger of Humans wherever they live and whoever they are. The obsolescence of politics is manifest. The fatigue, mistrust and skepticism it provokes is blatantly and desperately obvious.
The Fiction State is at the very center of the new governance paradigm: post-politics. Somos todos -digamos una mayoria- victimas de un sistema que nos machaca cada dia, unos pocos viven a expensas de la mayoria, la historia de la humanidad es un historia de explotacion de unas clases sobre otras, de unas etnias sobre otras.
Hay que cambiar de sistema, como el que cambia de coche, el problema es que nuevo sistema instalamos? Esa A los capitalistas extremos -piratas- hay que darles la sensacion de que el nuevo sistema es un capitalismo reformado -la nueva arquitectura del capitalismo, primer libro- es decir hay que disfrazarles el nuevo motor de tal manera que esten tranquilos y como el nino que toma la medicina escondida en la cucharada de sopa, no pongan mayor obstaculo en una transicion que seguramente tendra ganadores y perdedores, los ganadores son todos aquellos que viven por debajo del umbral de pobreza, de los perdedores me ocupo bien poco puesto que toda la atencion debe ser puesta en el enfermo, la persona sana sabra lidiar con la dificultad del cambio de ropaje.
Ortega y Gasset habla de "pura carroceria", no se trata de cambiar la carroceria del coche, sino el motor y engranaje, podria parecer el sistema es el mismo, no lo sera, la tecnologia es vanguardista, venida del futuro. Muchos se opondrian al cambio de sistema, emergiendo el conflicto historico comunismos frente a fascismos, capitalismos frente a comunismos. Los chinos supieron disfrazar su nuevo sistema como capitalismo, Occidente aplaudio cuando vio una oportunidad de exportar productos y servicios.
Nothing of what is to emerge would be possible without you all. I love you always, your son, your brother, your friend, lover and dreamer. I have made a promise, that I shall never stop, that I shall always move forward. Jaime Pozuelo-Monfort January Jaime Pozuelo-Monfort is the multidisciplinary European.
A new architecture is the only path towards a better world that we dream of, the world of eutopia universal welfare state. So far world leaders have not been courageous -there are always exceptions of leaders who have had to pay a high price, sometimes compromising their own lives- and the peoples have not been motivated to stand up and rebel.
In fact, we have been spectators, impassive eyewitnesses. Worst of it all was -before a total absence of reaction capability- the substitution of the values for which we had fought hard so many years, for the laws of the market. An economy of war -three billion dollars are spent every day in arms whereas 60 to 70 thousand individuals starve to death-, a virtual economy based on an unbridled speculation with no regulation. And both systems had forgotten justice. Expected Publication December Bretton Woods Elites, who have been serving the plutocrats and who, if things do not change, will use their propaganda instruments to oppose a paradigm shift.
In the first part of his autobiography, the American diplomat George F. We are not the owners of the planet we inhabit; we are only its custodians. The Monfort Plan is designed -with astonishing imagination- to attract many readers and individuals to key issues for the future of the planet and the human kind. It is through education that the average citizen can increase her or his level of consciousness. It is urgent that we accomplish decisions when dealing with questions and processes that, because of their very own nature, are potentially irreversible.
We are approaching a tipping point as a global society. We must become women and men capable of invent the tomorrow. The creative capacity, this mistery, is our hope. Jaime Pozuelo-Monfort has identified a Hundred Expert Dreamers, a sample of those who can serve the global public interest.
The Expert Dreamers will defeat the Axis of Feeble and the Pirates of Heartless Capitalism with their wisdom and intellectual strength. The inhabitants of the blue planet, its custodians, must recuperate the courage of the visionaries of the s and s, who created an architecture who changed the world for good. While the guidelines of Reagan and Ms Thatcher were inexorably implemented, the world remained silent.
Now, with a perplexed and irritated world, it is very likely that the scientific, academic and intellectual communities lead this transition from the force to the word. We must start living a life with a different look, in full color. We must, one more time, dream and love. The Sleeping Beauty must wake up and rescue the Forgotten Continent. The American Giant will fall in love, one more time, with the Sleeping Beauty. The author Jaime Pozuelo-Monfort, being a rare professional who practices what he preaches, is bringing out this edition to suit Indian pockets at a price much lower than the original edition which was essentially catered to the U.
The Monfort Plan is a much needed outcome of innovative scholarship, because capitalism as it has evolved has lost its way somewhere, and has developed a number of flaws, which take something away from the overall welfare of human society. The reality of climate change, which is the result of cumulative emissions of greenhouse gases GHGs , has led to an increase in the concentration of these gases such that the severe impacts which we are witnessing today as consequence of climate change will in the future become far more serious and impose much greater risks on human beings as well as other species.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC has provided up with projections of climate change and its impacts, which would create unacceptable levels of risk for human beings, ecosystems and all species on Earth. The issue of inequality of income and wealth clearly diminishes the welfare of society, because the fact that the rich are getting richer and the poor are restrained in mobility upwards certainly reduces the welfare of large numbers who are thus deprived of equal opportunity.
This book deals in considerable depth with the issue of inequitable development as the ugly face of capitalism. The analysis presented goes beyond neoclassical economics and certainly involves the incorporation of other disciplines such sa sociology, psychology, history and to an extent even anthropology. The author is uniquely qualified for analysis of this complex phenomenon, because as he himself states, he became multidisciplinary to be able to understand the complexity of the human condition as an outcome of capitalism.
The findings of the WIR are that inequality varies greatly across regions. In this was 37 percent in Europe, 41 percent in China, 46 percent in Russia, 47 percent in U. The highes level of inequality was seen to be prevalent in the Middle East, where it was estimated that the top 10 percent holds 61 percent of the national income. In doing so, he has analyzed the actions and effects of the Bretton Woods institutions, the whole record of development assistance and external aid, the spread of globalization, and the exercise of power by the lobbies and vested interests.
If a statistical relationship was to be arrived at linking the growth of inequality in any society and the power of special interest groups and lobbies, it would become apparent that the rich becoming richer and the poor remaining neglected is the direct result of special interest groups exercising political power to enhance their own income and wealth and thus acquiring further political clout. The political economy of the human condition and the fundamentals of inequitable growth and development are provided in this book through an in-depth analysis of the different sectors of the economy.
For instance, there is considerable insight provided on the functioning of financial institutions and access to capital for different sections of society, particularly the poor. The special case of agriculture is highlighted because in the developing countries poverty is often associated with the state of agriculture, what with the vagaries of weather and climate as well as constraints in access to finance, knowledge, new technologies and inputs like seeds for high yielding varieties.
Farming and agriculture in most parts of the world are essentially private sector activities, but they are influenced heavily by government policies and actions, which, as the record shows, have left poor farmers in many countries with serious disadvantages.
Increasingly this sector has an important place in the economy of several countries. Every other adult —a total of 80 million plus people- works as a volunteer, giving on average nearly five hours each week to one or several nonprofit organizations. This is equal to 10 million full-time jobs. In many parts of the world, in fact, the role of NGOs is expanding and brining about some impressive improvements in the lives of those who are served by them.
The non-profit sector is doing valuable work in several communities in fields as diverse as education, irrigation, decentralized supply of renewable energy, healthcare and disaster management. With the impacts of climate change adaptation measures would have to be put in place which in several respects are much better managed by non-profit organizations and which are sensitive to local conditions and realities than governments.
Overall, this book articulates a large number of solutions, but it would be unrealistic to expect that in pages of published material one would be able to find all the answers to the problems associated with capitalism as it exists today.
What is far more significant and useful is the fact that a publication such as this would trigger and stimulate discussion and debate by which solutions would emerge in different parts of the world, diverse as the conditions may be from one place to the other. With that objective in view, the author has clearly provided a remarkable analysis and assembly of concepts and In order to spend the liberated funds we will need Strategic Teams in each country and territory that are neutral, pragmatic, forward-looking and supportive of future prosperity of the whole of society.
Integration in this context does not respond to any ideological, partisan or nationalistic globalist sentiment, nor does it embrace a purely globalization-oriented approach in which the reduction of certain transaction costs fundamentally benefits certain vested interests connected to the better off the shareholders and the supranational corporation, as it is for instance the case in the elimination of tariffs in the context of the trade negotiation rounds of the World Trade Organization, or it is the case in the sophistication of the international financial architecture with its myriad of tax havens.
Expected Publication December Integration does not oftentimes occur because of difference of race, ethnicity or religion. Total integration would imply the absence of armed conflict and the existence of a single Army which would unlikely fight against itself. For instance whether Scotland in the United Kingdom, Catalonia in Spain or Flanders in Belgium represent examples in which a political trend has developed which justifies fragmentation or fracture.
For instance many Latin American leaders continue to perpetuate a discourse of animosity against their neighbour in spite of the fact that Latin Americans share a language, a religion, a history and a tradition and could potentially be united as the United States of America is in the north. These attempts are typically extremely slow and inefficient. The European integration has taken place arguably because of two world wars. There are 28 different agencies for each of these areas in the European Union, with 28 different world views and no consensus whatsoever possible.
Its population has tripled since World War II. Dozens of civil wars continue to hit the developing world. Yet in this world of ours major corporations continue to manufacture cars running on oil which we no longer need to maintain shareholders happy and industrial workers in developed nations employed. But we are not ready because we have forgotten to Expected Publication December embrace integration as a top priority.
If I were running for president of the world integration would be my top priority. As such it belongs in the realm of the imaginary and is only a long-term possible future among the many possible. If the best possible World two hundred years from now is one without extreme poverty, one of Eutopia Universal Healthcare, Education, Water and Sanitation and Cornucopia Food Abundance , it must necessarily be one without borders, with a World capital territory, with global institutions headquartered in an extremely poor country and a World parliament.
It has taken me 16 years to be precise to come up with the design of The New World. Like the vision of the New Indies in the imagination of Christopher Columbus, here is not only how I imagine the future of Earth, but how I anticipate it based on the ability to project and therefore inherently predict that I learned studying financial economics at Universidad Carlos III and financial engineering at the University of California at Berkeley. Many may wonder why the current World is stuck in the current statu quo with the current World order and an apparently unwilling to change politicla and corporate establishment.
My native Spain is a nation of nationalities, with four historical nationalities nacionalidades historicas recognized in the constitution: Catalunya, Euskadi Basque Country , Galicia and Andalusia, the latter the least obvious. The World will remain a World of nationalities but not of nation-states, oftentimes small and inefficient. Nationalies are equivlaent to ethnicities.
Take for instance the small republci of Albania where I have lived for the past four years, it is both a nation and a nationality. Albanians are a small, homogeneous ethnic group with their own culture and language, as such their nationality will not ony perpetuate but also thrive. The Administration in Albania is mastodontic suffering from atrophia, it is like having a body with a head ten sizes what it should be. The same applies in the Balkans to Macedonia and Kosovo, to Serbia and Montenegro, but nationalities, not nations, maintain the hatred of centuries past and are as a result unable to cooperate.
Spain in the meantime has to let the Catalans go and emancipate —as I will explain in a subsequent piece- and become the England of Reypublica, influencing but not imposing. The Catalans are fed up with Castilian intrusion and expansionism. I am not surprised. The New World has thus far 38 Fictoin States. Integration must be maximum in the shortest time available. It must be maximum because any other possibility would be similar to wasting resources, and as it is quintessential today there is no room for waste so long as billions remain hungry, uneducated, lacking water, sanitation, healthcare and education.
Nation-states can as a result be grouped according to certain criteria, for instance: Group nation-states in the same geography; 2. Group nation-states sharing the same language, culture and eventually religion; 3. Group nation-states that can benefit from pooling resources, from federalization; 4. Group nation-states that can embrace a Travel Union; 5.
Group nation-states that represent in Professor Robert A. Do all of the above so long as the inhabitants of the participating nation-states can be convinced of the benefits of the integration process. The intermediary —the middle man- oftentimes holds a competitive advantage which justifies its very own existence. The historical rivalry of nations must come to an end. We all, in actuality rather our ancestors, have fought infernal eternal wars, conquering, being conquered, committing atrocities, suffering from them.
The vendetta cannot prepetuate forever. Society has to mature and mature forward in a manner according to the urgency of the time. The exceptional The Economist illustrator Claudio Munoz wonderfully explains the process of confrontation, reconciliation between nation-states in his now acclaimed Fiction-State illustrations. World Integration will not happen overnight. Fiction States represent an extremely powerful vehicle to accelerate regional integration, precisely through a vehicle called the narrative paradigm.
These three coastal nations could unite forces and build up a federation of three nation-states, two languages and one single administrative capital, spending less in bureaucracy and overlapping administrations, and more in education and healthcare. Universities merge to become more competitive and scale up in the international University Rankings, for instance CentraleSupelec in France.
Companies merge for exactly the same reason in order to satisfy the appetite of hungry investors who demand more profit and an incresing stock price. Nation-States do not marry because of barriers of entry that, honestly speaking, are today rather subjective and ideological, not objective or pragmatic.
My father has always emphasized that he is a realist and a pragmatic. At 43 years old I am still an idealist, although I radically embrace pragmatism. I am an engineer and a Yet a New Law passed in aimed at improving the University System. Nothing has changed in 6 years. Similarly the current international political system run by the United Nations approves in a myriad of summits resolutions that remain on paper and have no binding outcomes.
Many ex- politicians from Spain with dubious analytical skills have come to play key roles in the United Nations, to my astonishment and that of my U. Do not tell me it cannot be done. I avoid individuals who do not challenge the current statu quo. The real question is what next? And if you not only believe a New World is possible but would like to join the effort I encourage you to join one of the Presidential Teams I am putting together.
Expected Publication December How a new global governance paradigm will overtake politics taking off a paradigm shift and enabling the transition to a poverty free, borderless World once and for all. Another world is possible if… Susan George, a new generation takes over.
Manners, concepts, style evolve. Western societies are no longer so straightforwardly organized. The number of people who work on assembly lines and farms has diminished sharply and will continue to do so. The trade union movement, once the backbone of left-wing political parties, has faded. Many members of the modern underclass perform services rather than making things. Manufacturing is steadily becoming the province of small and highly trained elites.
Cities want city administrators that manage and administer the city, not politicians that rule as caciques embracing ideology and prioritizing tearing down the opposition, owning the media and building up a rhetoric of exaggeration in which they pretend to be what they are not: visionaries and great executors.
Architects, engineers, lawyers, physicians, surgeons, their ideology matters little, their track record and professionalism matters most. Carpenters, electricians, masons, plumbers, their ideology matters little. I am indifferent to the religious orientation, place of birth, even age of a mechanic so long as the price is right and the work is done impeccably in a reasonable amount of time. The problem of politics is the political party.
The problem of capitalism is however not the corporation but the set of rules that make it operate and the set of incentives of its employees. We barely know them if we know them at all. The mediocre dominate Spanish politics but achtung! Also Portuguese and Italian politics. The who is important as many Spaniards would understand if we talk about football.
You may have a wonderful captain but one captain is not enough to win a football game after all. You need eleven players, a coach, a bench of another eleven great players, team spirit and a strategy. I do not know yet who the team players are in Podemos. I have perhaps barely seen their team spirit and I am not sure they have a plan or a team strategy. Almost everything that is done in Spanish politics is improvised. There is no ability to plan ahead with mission, vision, discipline and determination.
Religion owes its existence to the Messiahs and Prophets but if the Humans at the base do not excel ruling by example, the transposition of the platonic idea of Religion becomes humanly mediocre at best. First of all the individual members of the political parties should have stellar credentials. Second of all the aggregate of politicians should operate as a High Performance Presidential Team, meritocracy or technocracy at the service of society. Third of all a political party should have a global brand, a global philosophy, a global vision, and be able to address any challenge of any knid in any geography all of the time.
Many advocate we should not listen to the Experts, that meritocracies nad technocracies will defend the orthodoxy, the current system, the current statu quo. Ortega y Gasset was an elitist of his time, his time was a time for Spain of loss of an empire in the Spanish American War, revolutions, civil war and fascist dictatorship, and he was extremely well educated having completed his doctorate in philosophy in Germany.
The technoratic movement was described by Willliam E. In the former case they key figure was Walter Rautestrauch, a radical engineer and Columbia professor who organized the Committee on Technocracy in the summer fo Nelson explains how Akin contextualizes why the movement would collapse in the mid- s: Akin nevertheless rejects the conclusion of Elsner and others that technocracy declined because of the Lure of Roosevelt and the New Deal.
Davies raises the central paradox of the current technocracy: Yet the paradox is that it was the experts who created the crisis, with complex systems and models that are now discredited. Does the solution really lie in more advice from the same people, or is the crisis also one of ideas, showing that we cannot understand or manage the world using only quantitative sciences, and human and political judgment still need to be central? Technocracy, Davies argues, can be the alternative —particularly in times of crisis- to escape a childish policy of destructive patterns based on opposition: Recent years have nevertheless seen a move towards technocracy in many areas of policy, particularly where economics is concerned.
The EU is the leading example of this in action. Political judgment is not dead, but there is a conscious attempt to formulate as many policies and measures as possible in quantifiable, scientific, objective terms. From banking to food regulation, the technocrats are taking over from the politicians.
This offers a chance to escape from a destructive pattern of oppositional and oftentime infantile politics, and to avoid swings in behaviour which result from political change. Starting from the comparison between the Great Depression and the recent Great Recession ennunciated by The Economist, and intuiting that the episode that sees the technocratic movement emerge in the decade of the s would be repeated in in certain countries in crisis of the European Union, I believe that the technocratic movement arguing in the direction of Davies, represents only a transitory solution that lacks democratic legitimacy.
Political parties are national in a World that is global and increasingly borderless; 2. Political Parties have an ideology, but prove more often than not thhat when they rule their policymaking is central whether they advocate to be left-wing or right-wing; 3. Political Parties have a realy bad narrative, lacking vision, put together without imagination, creativity; 4. Political Parties have a dubious reruitment mechanism whereby they bring on board 18 year-olds to join the bae of the pyramid, youngsters who claim to have a passion for the left or the right, when in reality they have no clue and most often choose to be involved in politics because they have parents, uncles or aunts who have benefitted from party membership most often through the acquisition fo a political favor in the form of a contract or a job; 5.
Political Parties have a weak brand, little goodwill, poor reputation and no prestige. I have met thousands of top-notch Experts, a vast majority of whom not only has never enrolled in a political organization but would never do so. Because of the lack of prestige, Political Parties manifestly lack the ability to attract talent and merit, which should be —like in a consulting firm- 90 percent of their value and thus offering; 6.
Political Parties are mastodontic, usually running at the city, provice, region, country and now in the European Union at the continental level, this is five distinct overlapping governance levels. In the consulting setor the large consulting firms only serve the national level serving big corporations that operate nationwide.
Small consultancies serve cities and perhaps provinces. Medium consultancies will serve regions. The same applies to the small, medium and large law firms; 7. The Political Organization is a craddle of thriving corruption, nepotism, influence peddling, where political favors are the general rule nor the exception, where promotion is based on party seniority and not skills and ability, where kleptocracy of party funding remains mainstream, and a cadique or Secretay General owns the organization oftentimes imposing party discipline, party members are as a result Expected Publication December victims of Groupthink.
The Political Organization suffers in addition from an endemic problem now pandemic: endogamy, only promoting party members embracing reluctance to hiring or recruiting outside talent. Politics is a paradigm where airhead politicians who claim to represent society argue in endless, senseless debates in Parliament questions of no importance for which they have no competence.
Debates that are irrelevant predominate, discussions that are not technical dominate. It is like a fake Cristopher Columbus pretending to be sailing towards a fantastic destination when in reality he is sailing, in circles, a local lake; 9. Politics is a paradigm where there is unnecessary drama and an overdose of complexity. The Political Narrative, of low taste, miserable caliber and no category, is disseminated through the press: newspapers, radio and television which most often —there are in this case reasonable exeptions including The New York Times- find in such narrative an almost free source of news that do not matter, allowing them to sell to the audience the advertisements, the publicity that maintains their business models barely alive.
The challenge today in the governance arena is to design an alternative to politics. Evolution in a darwinist sense, progress and advancement in an engineering and technology perspective, have been missing from governance since Our baby boomers who have been ruling the World since the s and are beginning to pass away, have inherited a system that has worked wll for them, but not for subsequent generations, having done nothing to change the hen of the golden eggs.
The United Nations is a bad but necessary organization, because it is run by ex politicians who originate in the political party. A computer needs an operating system but it if the operating system is Windows 95 perhaps it is time to replace it with a more modern, state-of-the-art, vanguardist operating system. When a standard is created it can be imported and implemented anywhere.
This century is in fact the century of the standard in the ISO sense of the term. There are standards in accounting, airport control, roads and transportation, railroads, hospitality, even business education. Everyone understand what a three, four or five star Hotel is, and the level of quality that is associated to it. Of course when stanards are not enforced through audit, free riders can claim qualities and levels or service delivery that are false, inflated, and therefore fallacious and fraudulent.
Michelin awards three stars to extraordinary restaurants providing a product, a service above a standard of incredible caliber. In politics there is no standard across countries and territories. Dozens of new politicla parties emerge every year with names nobody recognizes led by individuals who have typically been Ministers in the past and have as a result spent all of their life in politics.
Post-Politics can only be implemented at a global level if there is a standards across countries and territories that guarantees to the ustomer the incorporation of the best talent, the creation and delivery of an extraordinary vision and thus narrative, and the ability to implement such vision and thus narrative. This new standard has to guarantee consistency across countries and territories, minimizing the likelihood of bad delivery, maximiizng customer satisfaction and security loyalty, through the delivery of an extremely entertaining narrative in the form of reality-fiction.
The standard once created has to be audited. There has to be a guardian, a ratings agency, making sure the standard is respected, fulfilled. Ortega y Gasset was born in in Madrid. He died in Madrid in What is Philosophy? Ortega y Gasset denounces in Invertebrate Spain the inability of the Spanish people to designate capable leaders.
The Spanish masses have been historically incapable of recognizing and identifying excellence in leadership and as a result to elect representatives based on merit for the management of their affairs. The Spanish blindness or myopia impedes the differentiation of the better from the mediocre with binding consequences.
The better man, the better woman is as a result annihilated: The Spaniard is by definition the man-mass, the man who belongs in the masses. The consequence is demolishing: no individual responsibility, no individual initiative, no entrepreneurship, a civil society that remains dead, asleep and moreover a political establishment that dictates what do to and how to proceed in every single aspect of life.
Spaniards complain, demonstrate in the streets, demand that someone else resolve their issues. Wild strikes which heavily rely on collective bargaining finally grant oftentimes unfair benefits to a minority at the expense of a majority. Everyone protects its own feud. There is no common good, there is no sense of collectivism. In What is Philosophy? Ortega y Gasset presents what is perhaps his most relevant innovation: the concept of generation.
Ortega y Gasset encourages the new generations of Spanish intellectuals to be particularly demanding, the only manner according to the philosopher to embrace a truly intellectual life. If Spanish intellectuals have been demanding, it must have been a minority as the impact has been rather inexistent.
Reading and research habits are rare compared to France and Germany. Junk television and junk food are becoming mainstream and taking over. The man-mass is being seduced, alienated, abducted by the new contemporary gods of television and publicity. A fake glamour invades every corner. We show off not because we read literature, but because we watch Big Brother. We are becoming The Great Pretenders name of a forthcoming article , who constantly pretend they know more than they actually do, who constantly acknowledge they read more than they actually do, a superficial society with no substance but the make up of extreme stupidity which spreads out at the speed of light through Facebook and Twitter.
En toda sociedad manda alguien —grupo o clase, pocos o muchos-. A false perception of intelligence has invaded Spanish society. False intelligence characterizes charlatan politicians who dare to spread out their doctrine holding a High School diploma. False intelligence is to know by heart and to memorize, a principle upon which the Spanish educational fiasco is related. Y en tanto los mejores, los que verdaderamente valen son poco conocidos, nadie les hace caso o, tal vez, se les combate en todas formas.
Ortega y Gassets writes Europe and the Idea of Nation in his late years during the s. World War II is over. The Spanish Civil War concluded years back. His wisdom has reached a maximum and he looks to the future being fully aware of the lessons from the past.
He reminds that politicians have become independent and interrupted the dialogue with the visionaries, the prophets. The man-mass joins the group and is not accountable for any obligations. Individual blame is not to be admitted. The individual remains part of the group, which might accept the blame because there is no one in the group, in the mass who will accept any responsibility whatsoever. The man-mass delegates in the State. The State becomes an octopus whose arms are the political parties.
It is not an alien invasion, but worse than it, a political invasion. Es conmovedora esta ternura que el Estado manifiesta hoy como Estado-beneficiencia. En Pero el resultado es que amenaza con asfixiar al individuo. Only a miracle could change the landscape. It was not Robert Kennedy who said why not, it was Barack Obama. A warning for politicians follows suit: you are no longer necessary.
In conclusion, we need Ortega y Gasset back. My mission since I started designing post-politics in as an alternative governance paradigm is to design the best possible High Performance Team and offer it to society as a substitute to politics.
Political parties usually think that they hold the legitimacy of representative power and that any alternatives to governance necessarily need to imply the creation of a national political party. It is in the interest of the current political oligopoly to use the previously created existing channels of political activity which largely benefit the current establishment at the expense of any authentic emerging alternatives. Our approach is radically different from mainstream politics.
In our approach we are bringing to society a complete alternative to politics, with real individuals and a pragmatic and extremely ambitious and visionary plan of action, presented to society as the best possible alternative that anyone could ever design. The narrative in post-politics presents the very best possible future and a trajectory conducent to reaching the target, based on the financial engineering theory of UCLA Professor Francis Longstaff binomial trees and the optimal exercise of American options.
The theory guarantees that we shall reach the best Expected Publication December possible future along the shortest time path available. Nobody else is contacting more Experts in more countries and territories with a better sampling methodology 8. I am the first to launch a Global Party present in every country and territory. The academic pioneers in the field of political science can confirm this fact. The course of history can only change if the currently political establishment which long ago decided to embrace clientelism, corruption, ideology, kleptocracy, mediocracy and nepotism is taken to the guillotine.
Offer-driven post-politics only makes sense if there is appetite for change of leadership on the demand side. Citizens can demonstrate and through violent revolution tear down the current establishment. The issue of this approach is that oftentimes there is no better alternative and a country ends up with at best an equivalent form of governance that the one which was previously in power, which coincidentally justified the revolution in the first place.
Long ago I decided to give up on politics as an obsolete governance paradigm. Politicians are professional charlatans who know how to adapt their rhetoric and political discourse to the demands of society. Political parties rarely attract the best and fill in their ranks with the mediocre who are oftentimes in politics because they enrolled at an early age in order to secure a remunerated job at the party or the public administration levels.
Society falls victim of a populist dynamics in which promises are made which remain unfulfilled. A political cycle of promises subsequently unfulfilled perpetuates. Ideology no longer matters. Those who claim that the real solutions to the real problems lie on the right or left sides of the ideological spectrum are either ignorant or liars. Radicalism is no longer in the extreme left or right of the political spectrum. Radicalism has to do with the empowerment of a radically new governance to politics that I call post-politics.
Post- politics is a radical brand new approach because it was born with different roots. Designing the best possible team for Albania I am meeting the protagonists which belong in The J. Monfort Party. As it happens in the national football team or the tennis players who take part in the Davis Cup, only the most accomplished and qualified candidates shall join The J. I guarantee to Albanian society that nobody through connections or the use of bribes shall join The J.
I guarantee to Albanian society that our philosophy is to design the best possible future for Albania and Albanians and do it at zero cost to society. The best reward is your love, your thanks, your admiration, your recognition, and most important your dignity and the guarantee that all and every one of you will live a prosperous life. After meeting hundreds of protagonists among the circa ten thousand Experts contacted only in Albania on a regular basis I am excited to announce my picks for Premier and Deputy Prime Minister of Albania in the new fiction state of Balkanland which integrates the six Balkan republics of Albania, Bosnia Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.
My decision is a nomination, an invitation for Avni Ponari and Kastriot Islami to become fully engaged and involved in post-politics as current protagonists of a reality-fiction narrative. Neither Avni Ponari nor Kastriot Islami have confirmed their commitment, which I trust shall arrive hereafter in view of the CEO Avni Ponari is a robust, integral and visionary business leader. Running subsidiaries in Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia, CEO Avni Ponari is aware of the phenomenal opportunities ahead if we embrace maximum integration as an emerging operating principle.
For CEO Avni Ponari who started his professional career as a captain in the Albanian Navy in , managing a corporation is similar to running a submarine, whether the chief executive in the corporation or the captain in the submarine must know at all times who is doing what and for what particular reason or purpose. For CEO Avni Ponari the aspiration to High Office should not be related to the ability or opportunity to enrich oneself, but rather to the determination of giving back to society what society has provided for before.
I think that CEO Avni Ponari could become one of the exceptional leaders Albania and the Balkans need, exceptional leader of an exceptional team of Expert Dreamers at the service of society. An insurance business is built upon the credibility and the track record that claims will be paid on time. Kastriot Islami is an extremely seasoned Albanian academic and professor, former Minister of Finance and Foreign Affairs, who has served as Member of Parliament of the leading left-wing and right-wing political parties in Albania.
His phenomenal institutional experience and his exceptional intellectual caliber coupled with his relevant international experience guarantee the necessary conditions any wannabe Deputy Prime Minister must fulfill. As an expert in the field of chaos theory, Dr. Kastriot Islami understands that the current mess in Albania may represent a unique opportunity enabling the launch and take off of post-politics as a parallel governance paradigm.
In our fluent and smooth conversations I have perceived his willingness to move beyond the current statu quo. I am confident he shall make the final move hereafter. I believe in the power of education to catapult society to its very best future.
Albanians must understand that only exceptionally gifted individuals strategically working as a team shall drive society to unheard of levels of prosperity, as it so happens in many other professional metiers essentially meritocratic such as sports, Michelin-star hospitality or bestseller literature. Shall Avni Ponari and Kastriot Islami accept our nomination? Once upon a time in Wonderland The fallacy opens up the opportunity to the design of new, alternative governance paradigms articulated around global principles, values, priorities and ethics.
A new philosophy, a new vision can, must emerge. A global alternative to the obsolete nation-state politics is not only necessary but also possible today. Roland Balla is our Host. The young and talented General Manager of Vila Alehandro has only recently returned to Albania after spending fifteen years working in hospitality in Italy.
Vila Alehandro is a breathtaking three-story villa built in during the Italian occupation and located in central Tirana offering a delicious variety of entrees, appetizers, salads, main dishes and a select and wide choice of wines at competitive prices in a luxurious, impeccable eating space. A new global party must be created to sustain the winds and tsunamis of time. The academic literature on global parties is scarce.
Patomaki recalls that H. The blind focus on national economic competitiveness is blurring the global vision. The argument is constructed by way of four subquestions: What are the main challenges of political parties today?
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So, why not get more bang for your buck? Not all penny stocks see quick action in their market price. But for those that do, they tend to make their big price moves within days, not years. There are many ways to trade penny stocks, and trading at low prices can be good practice if you're just starting out. Mobile apps of this sort have seen an increase in recent years.
Most penny stocks come from low-quality companies. In some cases, this is because their finances and balance sheet are a train wreck, and their operations produce large losses. The product or service they offer could be in a dying industry, or it could be flooded with too many competitors. It's a sad truth, but most investors who "take a crack" at the penny stock game walk away with less money than they had in the first place.
Some penny stocks trade on the New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange, and the NASDAQ, which means all the underlying companies have rules for how stocks are listed and reported, and investors are held to certain standards.
Such loose marketplaces are not even stock exchanges, and they attract low-quality companies by the thousands. We have seen wild valuations with any penny stock that is in the public eye, mentioned on the media, or swirling around the rumor mill. It does not take much buying to push the prices of penny stocks higher, so any investor stampede can put the shares to insane price levels. Car maker Tesla once bought a company with a common name, and people piled money into a penny stock that had a very similar sounding name.
Many brokers will charge higher rates for trading penny stocks, and many don't even allow it at all. Most will not accept custom trading orders, such as stop-losses. Unlike larger companies that may trade tens of millions of shares each day, some penny stocks are very thinly traded. Many see only a couple of thousand shares exchanged daily, while others may see even less trading volume. Rapid and hefty price moves are great when they go in your favor, but there are two sides to the volatility coin.
When prices fall, so does your investment. The low-priced, thinly traded nature of penny stocks makes them the perfect tool for tricking investors out of their money. With the worst pump and dump scams, the promoter loads up on shares at fractions of a penny, then "puts lipstick on a pig" by casting these bad bets in a more favorable light. At the very worst, they may even feed people blatant lies. Their glossy mail-out looks legit, their website seems fancy, and the story they are telling you makes sense.
Then they sell as their "victims" buy and push the price higher. The promoter makes money, while those who bought in to the scam will lose. With so many pros and cons, investing in penny stocks truly needs to be a personal choice. These smaller investments are not for everyone.
OTC Markets. Lucid Motors in Focus. By Peter Leeds. However, it is illegal to do so with any non-public data also known as insider information , and penny stocks are more susceptible to insider trading and market manipulation than larger-cap companies. As an example of the risks involved, penny stocks are often targeted for so-called pump and dump schemes.
Promoters of such schemes will lure in investors with the goal of "pumping" up the share price, before dumping their own shares at the expense of the investors, often causing substantial losses. Yes, but investing in penny stocks is a gamble.
To minimize risk, make sure to research the company whose stock you're interested in, and be wary of outsized claims of returns — which may signal a scam. It's also important to use a reputable broker; see our guide to the best stockbrokers for Most retail investors will have a higher chance of making money over the long term with better-quality stocks that have a higher capitalization than penny stocks.
For example, a low-cost index fund over the long term is a safer investment than putting the same amount in a handful of penny stocks over a five- or year period. Generally, investing in penny stocks is best avoided unless you have experience with angel investing and researching startups. Yes, penny stocks are hard to trade, as they are volatile and often have issues with liquidity, which can have a negative impact on the bid-ask spreads and your ability to get into and out of your positions.
Penny stocks are usually hard to research, which further compounds the difficulties of making money trading them. How much does it cost to trade penny stocks? The cost of trading penny stocks depends on the online broker you use. If you use a broker that offers flat-fee trades instead of per-share rates, trading penny stocks is not expensive.
We also recommend avoiding brokers that charge a monthly platform fee, data fees, or monthly minimums, as those costs quickly add up. Statistically speaking, the majority of investors who trade penny stocks lose money. Unfortunately, most success stories come from social media, where profit claims are unaudited. Penny stock scammers will advertise guaranteed or low-risk profits as a way to lure beginner traders into paying for expensive monthly subscriptions or lessons. Chat rooms, newsletters, and live streams are typical subscription offerings that beginners should review with great caution to avoid scams.
For beginners who want to buy penny stocks, the following checklist can help improve your experience buying and trading. Choose a reputable broker: Pick a trustworthy firm to open an online brokerage account. Analyze details: Research the penny stocks you are considering as much as possible, which is difficult given the lack of reporting required by OTC exchanges. Stay safe: Avoid penny stocks that are susceptible to market manipulation such as those targeted by "pump and dump" schemes, or that you may have heard about on online forums and in chat groups.
Diversify properly: Make sure that you diversify your portfolio to avoid putting too much at risk in one or more penny stocks. Have a strategy: Decide what price targets you have for the upside profit and downside risk , where you would exit the trade, or on a time-horizon for which you are willing to hold the position, regardless of the price action.
Take long-term views: Choose quality companies that have long-term potential for growth, and be willing to endure long stretches of time where such results may be delayed, including in the reflected penny stock price. If you want to know where to buy penny stocks or just want to do some research, you can use an online stockbroker; most offer penny stock trading. The best brokers in our analysis include the following:.
For additional tools to find penny stocks to trade, you can start with a penny stock screener or market mover list. Ideal for day trading , the best time to trade momentum stocks is after the market opens at a. Once you find the stock symbol you want to trade and create an order, you may need to accept a risk disclaimer related to the increased risk that comes with trading stocks that are not listed on a primary venue, such as the NYSE or NASDAQ.
Since most penny stocks have a low number of shares traded each day low liquidity , prices are easy to manipulate. This makes penny stocks prime candidates for pump and dump investment schemes. When trading penny stocks, beginners often think they are getting "more for their money" because they can buy more shares in total. This is a myth. Robinhood does not support trading OTC stocks.
As a result, OTC stocks are risky. Here are the Overall rankings for the 15 online brokers who participated in our Review, sorted by Overall ranking. For the StockBrokers. This makes StockBrokers. As part of our annual review process, all brokers had the opportunity to provide updates and key milestones and complete an in-depth data profile, which we hand-checked for accuracy.
Brokers also were offered the opportunity to provide executive time for an annual update meeting. Our rigorous data validation process yields an error rate of less than. Learn more about how we test. He heads research for all U. He has also been an advisor and outside trader for several hedge funds. He was one of the first traders to delve into the VIX tradable products and to write about them back in Chris is also an educator who teaches high school statistics, finance and computer science.