investing one way functions and relations
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Investing one way functions and relations Since funds are influenced by market forces, it is imperative that you closely monitor them periodically. The investment principles of both of these investors have points in common with the Kelly criterion for money management. Those that oversee platforms must maintain equilibrium between both sides of the network, sometimes subsiding the more price-sensitive side and charging higher prices to the side that stands to gain the most from the platform's success. Stock Markets. Any corporation can use equity shares as a long-term financing source.
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Eur/cad forexpros cafe Investments Views Shares. Fixed deposits, government bonds, and even an ordinary savings account can help keep your money safe. The independent variable, x, can have different values. Understanding what is equity share can help you make more informed decisions and create a diverse investment portfolio. Thus a variable can be considered as a quantity which assumes a variety of values in a particular problem.

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IR departments are sub-departments of public relations PR departments and work to communicate with investors, shareholders, government organizations, and the overall financial community. Companies normally start building their IR departments before going public. During this pre-initial public offering IPO phase, IR departments can help establish corporate governance, conduct internal financial audits, and start communicating with potential IPO investors.

For example, when a company goes on an IPO roadshow, it is common for some institutional investors to become interested in the company as an investment vehicle. Once interested, institutional investors require detailed information about the company, both qualitative and quantitative. To obtain this information, the company's IR department is called upon to provide a description of its products and services, financial statements, financial statistics, and an overview of the company's organizational structure.

The IR department's largest role is its interactions with investment analysts who provide public opinion on the company as an investment opportunity. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, also known as the Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act, was passed in , increasing reporting requirements for publicly traded companies.

This expanded the need for public companies to have internal departments dedicated to investor relations, reporting compliance, and the accurate dissemination of financial information. IR teams are typically tasked with coordinating shareholder meetings and press conferences, releasing financial data, leading financial analyst briefings, publishing reports to the Securities and Exchange Commission SEC , and handling the public side of any financial crisis.

Unlike other parts of public relations PR -driven departments, IR departments are required to be tightly integrated with a company's accounting department, legal department, and executive management team, such as the chief executive officer CEO , chief operating officer COO , and chief financial officer CFO. In addition, IR departments have to be aware of changing regulatory requirements and advise the company on what can and cannot be done from a PR perspective.

For example, IR departments have to lead companies in quiet periods , where it is illegal to discuss certain aspects of a company and its performance. These opinions influence the overall investment community, and it is the IR department's job to manage analysts' expectations. S Congress. Investing Essentials. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Investing Investing Essentials. Key Takeaways The investor relations IR department is a division of a business whose job it is to provide investors with an accurate account of company affairs.

IR departments are required to be tightly integrated with a company's accounting department, legal department, and executive management team. This also paves a way for relationship-building — perhaps transforming investor relations into investor relationships. For more information about the modern state of the investor relations profession, NIRI membership surveys can be quite useful and provide a wealth of information.

An outstanding academic study of the profession was also conducted by Petersen and Martin in with the goal of finding out the role and place of investor relations in the corporate hierarchy. The drawback of the study was its limited geographic area — the study analyzed only companies based in Florida. A more recent and national in scope study was conducted by Laskin The study investigated who performs investor relations tasks at Fortune companies, whom investor relations officers report to, what activities are the most common in the profession, what audiences investor relations officers communicate to, and several other key variables.

In addition to the changes that the profession is experiencing now, investor relations profession is likely to endure a few additional ones in the nearest future. Among them, I would like to specifically mention three: the advent of XBRL, the evolution of investor relations on the Internet and the continued globalization of investment markets. Imagine a press-release where each word has an invisible tag. When a person receives this press release, every word is automatically placed in a proper cell — a row for nouns, a row for pronouns, a row for verbs and so on.

Now imagine instead of a press-release it is a quarterly financial report. And instead of every word, every number has an invisible tag. In response, investor relations officers asked for ability to expand the tags and add additional tags. XBRL is extensible, hence it provides this opportunity of adding additional fields or tags. In fact, one of the vendors explained that investor relations professionals will be able to add tags, text fields, graphs and even pictures, if necessary.

But then financial analysts joined the discussion and asked to have that extensibility limited, because it might render tags, and XBRL in general, useless. Indeed, computers might have troubles understanding those extra tags, text fields, graphs and will definitely have troubles with pictures. Thus, financial analysts were afraid to end up with same old manual analysis of information as we had before XBRL. Will we even need financial analysts in the future?

If the data is automatically standardized, transmitted and coded into financial models, then investors should be able to read the output for themselves. If the analysis is done automatically, financial analysts could perhaps be substituted with a sophisticated piece of software. Conference calls already cut down the travel budgets, but the next wave of shareholder interaction tools may push the envelope even further. Securities and Exchange Commission encourages the usage of electronic communications between companies and their shareholders by enacting a number of amendments about blogs, proxies, and electronic shareholder forums.

The electronic communication tools allow companies to gain valuable information about their investor and solicit feedback, but they also demand somebody who is very savvy in public relations as the access to information and the speed of communications increase exponentially. How prepared will a person with financial background be to deal with this situation? Finally, globalization is still here. It did not go away; in fact, it probably grew even stronger.

But is the focus of globalization changing? Just ten years ago, companies from all over the world could not envision a better outcome than listing on NYSE. The programs of American Depositary Receipts were flourishing. Now combine it with electronic shareholder forums and XBRL. Shareholders could also find their ways of communicating to each other independent from the corporate oversight — across the world and instantaneously.

Investor relations started in early s as a public relations function of communicating to retail shareholders. As financial markets institutionalized and financial audiences experienced the disappointment in poorly qualified publicists, investor relations moved under the supervision of a CFO.

Financial expertise became the entry point to the job. Today, however, investor relations profession seeks the middle ground — where public relations and financial skill-sets will be combined to complete and support the sophisticated investor relations of the 21st century. Increased transparency requirements, instantaneous communication, access to information and advent of XBRL demand changes in the way investor relations is practiced. Allen, C. Building mountains in a flat landscape: Investor relations in the post-Enron era.

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 7 4 , Chatlos, W. What is investor relations? Roalman Ed. Measures that matter. Gelb, D. Intangible assets and corporate signaling. Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, 15 4 , Greenspan, A. Laskin, A. Investor relations practices at Fortune companies: An exploratory study. Public Relations Review, 32 1 , The value of investor relations: A Delphi panel investigation. Lev, B. Contemporary Accounting Research, 22 4 , Morrill, D.

Origins of NIRI. Orndorff, C. The information investment managers want from public companies. Cole Ed. Princeton, NJ: Bloomberg Press. Petersen, B. CEO perceptions on investor relations function: An exploratory study. Journal of Public Relations Research, 8 3 , Ryan, T. Using investor relations to maximize equity valuation. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Finance.

Wiesel, T. Customer equity: An integral part of financial reporting. Journal of Marketing, 72 2 , Taparia, J. Truly a must-have for any public relations professionals who found themselves assigned to communicating investor relations messages. This book is not intended for accountants or financial analysts, but rather for journalists who have to cover financial markets or corporate world.

Marcus, B. Competing for capital: Investor relations in a dynamic world. This is, in my mind, one of the best books about investor relations. It covers variety of aspects of investor relations — public offering, shareholder relations, relations with financial analysts, relations with outside investor relations counsel, etc. It might be too complex to use as a text-book but as a professional resource it is irreplaceable.

Rieves, R. Investor relations for the emerging company. This book is an essential reading for any company considering going public. If you are a public relations practitioner at a small company and your CEO thinks about IPO, this is the book to read. What would you need to do to provide communication support for the IPO, where to list your stock, where to find investors, how to get on a radar screen of financial analysts, what rules and regulations you would have to comply with and many other valuable topics can be found in this book.

It is a very practical and useful guide for launching an investor relations program. It is only weakness is the publication date — The profession of investor relations experienced quite a few changes in this short time period. A publication of NIRI , it is a monthly newsletter of this professional organization usually centered around a key topic. IR Magazine. This magazine is not affiliated with NIRI, but, nevertheless, it is probably the best resource for the investor relations practitioner.

The issue typically has key feature stories, best practices, strategies for buy-side and sell-side, as well as discussions of various reporting issues. I do not know of any academic journals that would focus on the investor relations. Most of the information is for members only, but there are occasional news bulletins available to the general public.

This organization has much information in the open-access and is a wonderful resource about all aspects of investor relations. If you are looking for best practices in building investor relations Web sites, designing annual reports or preparing investor presentations, you should visit this Web site.

Now it unites 25 associations from all over the world. It can be used to find local professional organizations and comparing the standards of investor relations around the world. In addition, IIRF has quite a substantial library of investor relations resources available in free access.

The best part, anybody can download these annual reports absolutely free. Blogs the earlier version of this list was published on Dr. Investor Relations Musings. A blog written by John Palizza, a practitioner and educator in investor relations, who now runs his own consulting company. A blog is updated about once a week. The blog has a general focus on various aspects of investor relations.

IR Web Report. A blog managed by an investor relations consulting company. The focus of the blog and the company is online investor relations and online corporate communications. The blog is updated almost daily, written very well and has a lot of useful information.

Neville Hobson. A personal blog by Neville Hobson, a public relations and corporate communications practitioner from Great Britain. He is a pioneer in using new technology, so the blog pays much attention to the online communications and virtual reality. The main focus is various aspects of communications, not just investor relations.

The blog has a very busy design, however, tags can help readers find the information they are looking for. A blog is updated daily or several times a day! Easy-to-read, great source of information about European investor relations. The blog has a general focus on various investor relations issues. It is not updated very regularly, but there is a post at least once a month.

However, the posts are usually valuable and provide good summary and analysis rather than just a link to information. It is definitely worth reading. Now this is the destination to discuss everything related to legal aspects of investor relations.

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Excel Functions for Investment Analysis

The investment function refers to investment -interest rate relationship. There are maily 4 Finance Functions - Investment Decision, Financial Decision, Dividend Decision and Liquidity Decision. Investor Relations (IR) combines finance, communication, and marketing to control information between a company, investors & stakeholders.