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Investing amplifier circuit pdf editor advanced forex trading strategies

Investing amplifier circuit pdf editor

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Mixed-mode circuit simulation lets you simulate analog and digital components side-by-side. SPICE-like component models give you accurate results for nonlinear circuit effects. Human-friendly formats let you enter and display values concisely, just like you would on a paper schematic. Unit-aware expression evaluation lets you plot arbitrary signals of interest, such as differential signals or power dissipation.

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Professional schematic PDFs, wiring diagrams, and plots. No installation required! I decided to make separate casings for the power supply and the amp. Thus I can choose to stack the casings or set them side by side. I made the casings out of wood, because I'm more comfortable with woodworking than with metal. Besides that, I have a thing with clear lacquered birch plywood. I have a bookcase and a dressoir made from it and my daughter sleeps in an ubercool birch plywood bed.

Wood isn't a very sensible choice to make audio-equipment casings from. Most parts that go through the casing connectors, switch, indicator light, etc. So for the connectors on the backside of the amplifier casing, I decided to mount them into a separate plate of aluminium, and screw the plate onto the inside of the backside of the casing.

To get a grip on the size of the casing, the size of the power supply is leading the PS has the largest components by far. I laid out the components on a sheet of paper and found out the whole thing can fit into a rectangle of The top of the casings is a sheet of perforated aluminium. The sheet I used is 0. I'm looking out for perfed aluminium sheets of at least 1. These are the circuit diagrams I used. I built them without PCB's, all components of the amp are point-to-point soldered on the chip's leads.

For the power supply I used loudspeaker-cable and regular power cord to connect the components. The secondary coils of the transformator must be connected. To do this right, you must find out which wires to connect. Connecting the wrong leads will result in a 0 Volt output. When connected the right way, you should read 40 to 50 Volts AC. I used an oscilloscope to find the right configuration, but it can also be done with a multimeter, set on AC Voltage. The rectifier bridge KBU needs some cooling.

I mounted it on a piece of aluminium. For more info on the circuit: I added some comments with the pictures. Have a look. Not very hard, this step. The power supply has only a few components and is easy to prototype. I connected the parts with connectors and crocodile clamps and hooked it up to an oscilloscope. It worked right away for me.

Now that you have the amps, it's time to connect power, ground and signal on the plate. I found this the hardest part of the project. That might have something to do with my choice for point-to-point soldering instead of using PCB's.

The drawing in picture 1 is an attempt to show how I set it up. I'm not very happy with the result. I'm confident that the wires and connections will not cause shorts, but boy, what a mess! If I ever make another amp, this is the part that I'll want to do better. Here's how I organised the wiring: See pics 1 and 5. Grounding: At first, I wanted to ground all components in one place. I read about "ground star-configuration" over here , and it made sense to me. But there's a price to pay: The many wires to the central ground cause a true spaghetti incident in wiring.

So after a failure or two, I decided to ground the parts in two different but close spots. Volume control: Start easy. See picture 2. The middle lead goes to the amps through a 1k resistor. One other lead goes to ground, the remaining lead must be connected to the input.

It's a matter of paying attention and soldering two resistors per channel onto the potentiometer. Connectors: I mounted the connectors to an aluminium back plate. The trouble with wiring starts here: All connectors must be grounded, resulting in 6 leads to the "star ground" M4 bolt in the back plate. Try to cut the grounding wires as short as possible. Loopy wires take up space. See pic 3. Start with choosing one of the XLR-plug's pin as ground and connect it to the star ground.

Also connect the star ground in the back plate with star-ground 2 on the "floor". The wires are mounted in 16 amp connectors which are screwed onto the wooden floor. You will need that when you connect the other side of the XLR plug to the power supply's power cord! Heat sink: I glued a piece of alu tube 30x30 mm over the width of the floor with epoxy. I made some halfway cuts in it to improve ventilation and add some area.

The disadvantage of this configuration is that the line-in wires and a ground wire must go through the heat sink. I covered the wires with heat shrink tube to protect them against the heat. Better safe than sorry. Connect it: All is ready to be connected now. Connect the potentiometer to the lines-in and ground through the heat sink. Then mount both amps on the heat sink.

Start connecting the wires one by one, cutting them as short as possible. Use shrink wrap to isolate the soldered connections where possible. The spaghetti incident is happening right under your hands! With some patience and a decent soldering iron, you'll get there. Compared to the amplifier, wiring the power supply is a piece of cake!

I mounted the parts on a separate wooden floor. The mains plug, the fuse, the switch and the indicator LED are fitted in the case itself. Browse through the pictures to see what I did. It's not a hard job. The toroid transformer is mounted on the floor with a 60 mm bolt. I drilled a 20mm hole in the bottom of the case, so that the floor can ly flat on the case's bottom. In the floor, I drilled two 35mm holes to fit in the big capacitors and I cut away a rectangle to fit the mains filter.

I used a tie-rap around the power cord on the inside of the box as a strain relief. Just in case someone decides to lift the power supply by the power cord That's it! As said, my first Serious Amp is the best amplifier I've ever owned and I'm very happy with the result. It's not perfect, though. When the volume is turned up without music playing, a soft noise comes up. It's inaudible when playing music, but it's there.

I think it comes from my cheap potentiometer, but a small cap in the line-in might fix it as well. I'm going to have a look at it when I find some time. For now, I totally enjoy playing music. Next project: Making a pair of decent loudspeakers :- For people reading this who never built an Amp but always wanted to: Just do it! I hope this I'ble gets you the motivation and confidence that you can. If you have questions, write them down in the comments.

I'll try to answer them as good as I can. For people who made Serious Amps before: Please leave your comments and tips for others. It'll be appreciated by me and hopefully a lot of future Amp-builders. He built a couple of them, but I have NO idea about them. Looking for someone who would like his paperwork. This is fabulous! Do you think it's possible for me a complete techno moron to be able to build this? The case would be the easy part for me, but the wiring etc looks very complicated.

Reply 1 year ago. It's possible. Consider starting with a bare circuit board from ebay, or a kit, or even a completed board. Bare PCBs are dirt cheap, and will make for a much neater build. Yes, thanks. Much easier! Hey man, very impressed with this amp. Not impossible, but it's unlikely to be cost-effective compared with buying an amp new or used.

The LM can be paralleled to increase the current and handle lower impedance loads , and then bridged to double the voltage swing and roughly quadruple the power. Reply 6 years ago on Introduction. You would need either an entirely different op-amp, or design a grid of at least four LM's to distribute the power. And then take care of the heat that comes with to Watts.

The design of my amp is not suitable for that kind of power Tip 2 years ago. Tip 3 years ago on Step 7. Star grounding: if you have several components you can connect them to a terminal strip s and use links to interconnect each as required. Having screw joints instead of soldering everthing can be very handy if you need to adjust your layout as you go. There won't be any potential across a terminal strip and no risk of dry joints or excessive heat.

Reply 3 years ago. Question 4 years ago. Answer 4 years ago. You can use a center tapped transformer, but the ferrite core will saturate. This will produce a distinct distortion in the output audio. The shown transformer is a safe alternative, and will provide the best response possible. Please don't touch it while in operation though.

No transformer is safe while in operation. Very nice write-up ynze! I think it's very complementary to what Marc Hennesy has posted. Your overview of the Internet resources is also spot-on. I have been looking at those too. Very informative over-all! I wish to build a Gainclone later this year. So far a few things have held me back: - it is difficult to judge whether a Gainclone will outperform the modern Class-D amplifiers in terms of sound quality which is important for me.

There is not much comparative information available on the web; - I have so far concentrated on the digital source and to get this perfected has taken some time. I have reached the best audible results with AKM based DAC boards in combination with a Raspberry Pi; - I want the amp to look good and my case building capabilities are limited because of available tools and space; - too many other projects in the pipeline and on my to-do list In your write-up you mentioned that you wanted to build your own speakers.

From what I have read on the web, the Gainclones merit to be paired with good speakers and you may actually be amazed of what your amp can really achieve! I have built IKEA based speakers please Google and am planning to build a pair of Marc Hennesy-style speakers, combining two full-range cabinets with one sub-woofer. The sub-woofer can be powered through a mono Gainclone or a dedicated Class-D amp.

I built an audio amp once. It operated off of 12 V and was used to call in varmints. We built it in the shed.