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|Investing operational amplifier physics projectile||Students will understand and be able to apply basic principles of genetic analysis. For those student who had taken ARA or four or more years of high school Arabic. This course examines the national security process, regional studies, advanced leadership ethics, and Air Force doctrine. Seminar type discussions require individuals or small groups to explore environmental issues. An in-depth study of these topics will provide knowledge, understanding and appreciation of this region while offering insights into the development of communities in the U.|
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We built the above circuit here it is and looked at the output. We calculated that the current of the circuit output should be 0. So doing some calculations, we realized that R2 should be at a value of 2 kOhms in order to supply the maximum 5 mA current.
So changing the value of the variable resistor using the nifty box below , we got an output current of 4. Looking into it a bit further, we realized that increasing the resistance to even 2. When current flows through a light emitting diode, one photon of light is emitted for every electron of current.
The direction of the photo-current is in the direction opposite to the normal direction of current flow in a diode. This is what a circuit should look like for a photodiode being used to create current. If a phototransistor is used instead, the circuit becomes more sensitive, and looks like this. We built the circuit using a regular LED as a photodiode. The voltage level changes in altitude above or below the ground line when we block the light.
When we use the DC coupling, there is a negative voltage with the light on, and it just goes to ground with the light off. And the DC:. And since pin 3 is going to ground, the current at the summing junction must also be zero. We replaced the photodiode in the circuit with a phototransistor.
Then we found the percent modulation, which is the ratio between the AC voltage amplitude and the DC voltage offset. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. The Physics Portal. Skip to content. Home About. Part 1: Intro to the Op Amp An op amp is a class of amplifiers that are close to an ideal differential amplifier.
Here it is, complete with power supply connection and operational amplifier the little black thing : Here is the circuit for the open loop test. Golden Rules of Op Amps: With negative feedback in place, the output of the op amp will try to do whatever is necessary to keep the voltage difference between the inputs equal to zero.
They will equilibrate. Due to their very high input impedance, the inputs of an op amp will neither source nor sink appreciable currents. The output current is about 3. Now the average input photocurrent is now 0. Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading This entry was posted in Electronics Labs. Bookmark the permalink.
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The neutron burst , which is used as the primary destructive action of the warhead, is able to penetrate enemy armor more effectively than a conventional warhead, thus making it more lethal as a tactical weapon. The concept was originally developed by the US in the late s and early s. It was seen as a "cleaner" bomb for use against massed Soviet armored divisions. As these would be used over allied nations, notably West Germany , the reduced blast damage was seen as an important advantage.
In this role the burst of neutrons would cause nearby warheads to undergo partial fission, preventing them from exploding properly. For this to work, the ABM would have to explode within approximately metres ft of its target. It is believed the Soviet equivalent, the A 's 53T6 missile, uses a similar design. The weapon was once again proposed for tactical use by the US in the s and s, and production of the W70 began for the MGM Lance in This time it experienced a firestorm of protest as the growing anti-nuclear movement gained strength through this period.
Opposition was so intense that European leaders refused to accept it on their territory. President Ronald Reagan built examples of the W which remained stockpiled in the US until they were retired in The last W70 was dismantled in In a standard thermonuclear design, a small fission bomb is placed close to a larger mass of thermonuclear fuel. The two components are then placed within a thick radiation case , usually made from uranium , lead or steel.
The case traps the energy from the fission bomb for a brief period, allowing it to heat and compress the main thermonuclear fuel. The case is normally made of depleted uranium or natural uranium metal, because the thermonuclear reactions give off massive numbers of high-energy neutrons that can cause fission reactions in the casing material. For this reason, these weapons are technically known as fission-fusion-fission designs.
In a neutron bomb, the casing material is selected either to be transparent to neutrons or to actively enhance their production. The burst of neutrons created in the thermonuclear reaction is then free to escape the bomb, outpacing the physical explosion.
By designing the thermonuclear stage of the weapon carefully, the neutron burst can be maximized while minimizing the blast itself. This makes the lethal radius of the neutron burst greater than that of the explosion itself. Since the neutrons disappear from the environment rapidly, such a burst over an enemy column would kill the crews and leave the area able to be quickly reoccupied.
Compared to a pure fission bomb with an identical explosive yield, a neutron bomb would emit about ten times the amount of neutron radiation. Furthermore, the neutrons emitted by a neutron bomb have a much higher average energy level close to 14 M eV than those released during a fission reaction 1—2 MeV.
Technically speaking, every low yield nuclear weapon is a radiation weapon, including non-enhanced variants. All nuclear weapons up to about 10 kilotons in yield have prompt neutron radiation as their furthest-reaching lethal component. For standard weapons above about 10 kilotons of yield, the lethal blast and thermal effects radius begins to exceed the lethal ionizing radiation radius. Enhanced radiation weapons also fall into this same yield range and simply enhance the intensity and range of the neutron dose for a given yield.
The conception of neutron bombs is generally credited to Samuel T. Cohen of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory , who developed the concept in Initial development was carried out as part of projects Dove and Starling, and an early device was tested underground in early Designs of a "weaponized" version were carried out in Both entered phase three testing in July , and the W64 was cancelled in favor of the W63 in September The W63 was in turn cancelled in November in favor of the W70 Mod 0 , a conventional design.
By this time, the same concepts were being used to develop warheads for the Sprint missile , an anti-ballistic missile ABM , with Livermore designing the W65 and Los Alamos the W Both entered phase three testing in October , but the W65 was cancelled in favor of the W66 in November Testing of the W66 was carried out in the late s, and it entered production in June , the first neutron bomb to do so. Approximately were built, with about 70 of these being on active duty during and as part of the Safeguard Program.
When that program was shut down they were placed in storage, and eventually decommissioned in the early s. Development of ER warheads for Lance continued, but in the early s attention had turned to using modified versions of the W70, the W70 Mod 3. Development was subsequently postponed by President Jimmy Carter in following protests against his administration's plans to deploy neutron warheads to ground forces in Europe.
President Ronald Reagan restarted production in The Soviet Union renewed a propaganda campaign against the US's neutron bomb in following Reagan's announcement. In Reagan then announced the Strategic Defense Initiative , which surpassed neutron bomb production in ambition and vision and with that, neutron bombs quickly faded from the center of the public's attention.
The W66 warhead, for the anti-ICBM Sprint missile system, was deployed in and retired the next year, along with the missile system. The latter two types were retired by President George H. Bush in , following the end of the Cold War. The last W70 Mod 3 warhead was dismantled in , and the last W79 Mod 0 was dismantled by , when the dismantling of all W79 variants was completed. According to the Cox Report , as of the United States had never deployed a neutron weapon.
The nature of this statement is not clear; it reads "The stolen information also includes classified design information for an enhanced radiation weapon commonly known as the "neutron bomb" , which neither the United States, nor any other nation, has ever deployed. Cohen suggests the report is playing with the definitions; while the US bombs were never deployed to Europe , they remained stockpiled in the US.
In addition to the two superpowers, France and China are known to have tested neutron or enhanced radiation bombs. France conducted an early test of the technology in and tested an "actual" neutron bomb in China conducted a successful test of neutron bomb principles in and a successful test of a neutron bomb in However, neither of those countries chose to deploy neutron bombs.
Chinese nuclear scientists stated before the test that China had no need for neutron bombs, but it was developed to serve as a "technology reserve", in case the need arose in the future. In August , the Indian government disclosed that India was capable of producing a neutron bomb. Although no country is currently known to deploy them in an offensive manner, all thermonuclear dial-a-yield warheads that have about 10 kiloton and lower as one dial option, with a considerable fraction of that yield derived from fusion reactions, can be considered able to be neutron bombs in use, if not in name.
This ABM system contains at least 68 neutron warheads with a 10 kiloton yield each and it has been in service since , with inert missile testing approximately every other year since then By , according to Mordechai Vanunu , Israel was mass-producing neutron bombs. The article focused on the fact that it was the first weapon specifically intended to kill humans with radiation.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory director Harold Brown and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev both described neutron bombs as a "capitalist bomb", because it was designed to destroy people while preserving property. Neutron bombs are purposely designed with explosive yields lower than other nuclear weapons. Since neutrons are scattered and absorbed by air, neutron radiation effects drop off rapidly with distance in air.
As such, there is a sharper distinction, relative to thermal effects, between areas of high lethality and areas with minimal radiation doses. All high yield more than c. The intense pulse of high-energy neutrons generated by a neutron bomb is the principal killing mechanism, not the fallout, heat or blast. The inventor of the neutron bomb, Sam Cohen, criticized the description of the W70 as a neutron bomb since it could be configured to yield kilotons:. The W is not a discriminate weapon, like the neutron bomb—which, incidentally, should be considered a weapon that "kills enemy personnel while sparing the physical fabric of the attacked populace, and even the populace too.
Although neutron bombs are commonly believed to "leave the infrastructure intact", with current designs that have explosive yields in the low kiloton range, detonation in or above a built-up area would still cause a sizable degree of building destruction, through blast and heat effects out to a moderate radius, albeit considerably less destruction, than when compared to a standard nuclear bomb of the exact same total energy release or "yield". The Warsaw Pact tank strength was over twice that of NATO , and Soviet deep battle doctrine was likely to be to use this numerical advantage to rapidly sweep across continental Europe if the Cold War ever turned hot.
Any weapon that could break up their intended mass tank formation deployments and force them to deploy their tanks in a thinner, more easily dividable manner , would aid ground forces in the task of hunting down solitary tanks and using anti-tank missiles against them, such as the contemporary M47 Dragon and BGM TOW missiles, of which NATO had hundreds of thousands. Rather than making extensive preparations for battlefield nuclear combat in Central Europe, "The Soviet military leadership believed that conventional superiority provided the Warsaw Pact with the means to approximate the effects of nuclear weapons and achieve victory in Europe without resort to those weapons.
Neutron bombs, or more precisely, enhanced [neutron] radiation weapons were also to find use as strategic anti-ballistic missile weapons, and in this role they are believed to remain in active service within Russia's Gazelle missile. Upon detonation, a near-ground airburst of a 1 kiloton neutron bomb would produce a large blast wave and a powerful pulse of both thermal radiation and ionizing radiation in the form of fast The thermal pulse would cause third degree burns to unprotected skin out to approximately meters.
The blast would create pressures of at least 4. Neutron activation from the explosions could make many building materials in the city radioactive, such as galvanized steel see area denial use below. Because liquid-filled objects like the human body are resistant to gross overpressure, the 4—5 psi blast overpressure would cause very few direct casualties at a range of c. The powerful winds produced by this overpressure, however, could throw bodies into objects or throw debris at high velocity, including window glass, both with potentially lethal results.
Casualties would be highly variable depending on surroundings, including potential building collapses. The pulse of neutron radiation would cause immediate and permanent incapacitation to unprotected outdoor humans in the open out to meters, with death occurring in one or two days. The median lethal dose LD 50 of 6 Gray would extend to between and meters for those unprotected and outdoors, where approximately half of those exposed would die of radiation sickness after several weeks.
A human residing within, or simply shielded by, at least one concrete building with walls and ceilings 30 cm 12 in thick, or alternatively of damp soil 24 inches thick, would receive a neutron radiation exposure reduced by a factor of Even near ground zero, basement sheltering or buildings with similar radiation shielding characteristics would drastically reduce the radiation dose. Furthermore, the neutron absorption spectrum of air is disputed by some authorities, and depends in part on absorption by hydrogen from water vapor.
Thus, absorption might vary exponentially with humidity, making neutron bombs far more deadly in desert climates than in humid ones. The questionable effectiveness of ER weapons against modern tanks is cited as one of the main reasons that these weapons are no longer fielded or stockpiled. With the increase in average tank armor thickness since the first ER weapons were fielded, it was argued in the March 13, , New Scientist magazine that tank armor protection was approaching the level where tank crews would be almost fully protected from radiation effects.
Thus, for an ER weapon to incapacitate a modern tank crew through irradiation, the weapon must be detonated at such proximity to the tank that the nuclear explosion 's blast would now be equally effective at incapacitating it and its crew. However this assertion was regarded as dubious in the June 12, , New Scientist reply by C. Grace, a member of the Royal Military College of Science , as neutron radiation from a 1 kiloton neutron bomb would incapacitate the crew of a tank with a protection factor of 35 out to a range of meters, but the incapacitating blast range, depending on the exact weight of the tank, is much less, from 70 to meters.
However although the author did note that effective neutron absorbers and neutron poisons such as boron carbide can be incorporated into conventional armor and strap-on neutron moderating hydrogenous material substances containing hydrogen atoms , such as explosive reactive armor , can both increase the protection factor, the author holds that in practice combined with neutron scattering , the actual average total tank area protection factor is rarely higher than According to the Federation of American Scientists , the neutron protection factor of a "tank" can be as low as 2, without qualifying whether the statement implies a light tank , medium tank , or main battle tank.
A composite high density concrete , or alternatively, a laminated graded-Z shield , 24 units thick of which 16 units are iron and 8 units are polyethylene containing boron BPE , and additional mass behind it to attenuate neutron capture gamma rays, is more effective than just 24 units of pure iron or BPE alone, due to the advantages of both iron and BPE in combination. The Soviet T72 tank, in response to the neutron bomb threat, is cited as having fitted a boronated polyethylene liner, which has had its neutron shielding properties simulated.
However, some tank armor material contains depleted uranium DU , common in the US's M1A1 Abrams tank, which incorporates steel-encased depleted uranium armor, a substance that will fast fission when it captures a fast, fusion-generated neutron, and thus on fissioning will produce fission neutrons and fission products embedded within the armor, products which emit among other things, penetrating gamma rays.
Although the neutrons emitted by the neutron bomb may not penetrate to the tank crew in lethal quantities, the fast fission of DU within the armor could still ensure a lethal environment for the crew and maintenance personnel by fission neutron and gamma ray exposure, largely depending on the exact thickness and elemental composition of the armor—information usually hard to attain.
Despite this, Ducrete —which has an elemental composition similar but not identical to the ceramic second generation heavy metal Chobham armor of the Abrams tank—is an effective radiation shield, to both fission neutrons and gamma rays due to it being a graded Z material. Uranium, being about twice as dense as lead, is thus nearly twice as effective at shielding gamma ray radiation per unit thickness. As an anti-ballistic missile weapon, the first fielded ER warhead, the W66, was developed for the Sprint missile system as part of the Safeguard Program to protect United States cities and missile silos from incoming Soviet warheads.
A problem faced by Sprint and similar ABMs was that the blast effects of their warheads change greatly as they climb and the atmosphere thins out. At higher altitudes, starting around 60, feet 18, m and above, the blast effects begin to drop off rapidly as the air density becomes very low. This can be countered by using a larger warhead, but then it becomes too powerful when used at lower altitudes. An ideal system would use a mechanism that was less sensitive to changes in air density.
Neutron-based attacks offer one solution to this problem. The burst of neutrons released by an ER weapon can induce fission in the fissile materials of primary in the target warhead. The energy released by these reactions may be enough to melt the warhead, but even at lower fission rates the "burning up" of some of the fuel in the primary can cause it to fail to explode properly, or "fizzle".
Thus a small ER warhead can be effective across a wide altitude band, using blast effects at lower altitudes and the increasingly long-ranged neutrons as the engagement rises. The use of neutron-based attacks was discussed as early as the s, with the US Atomic Energy Commission mentioning weapons with a "clean, enhanced neutron output" for use as "antimissile defensive warheads.
A particular example of this is the US Polaris A-3 missile, which delivered three warheads travelling on roughly the same trajectory, and thus with a short distance between them. A single ABM could conceivably destroy all three through neutron flux. Developing warheads that were less sensitive to these attacks was a major area of research in the US and UK during the s. Some sources claim that the neutron flux attack was also the main design goal of the various nuclear-tipped anti-aircraft weapons like the AIM Falcon and CIM Bomarc.
One F pilot noted:. The bomber s, if any was collateral damage. It has also been suggested that neutron flux's effects on the warhead electronics are another attack vector for ER warheads in the ABM role. Ionization greater than 50 Gray in silicon chips delivered over seconds to minutes will degrade the function of semiconductors for long periods. However, while such attacks might be useful against guidance systems which used relatively advanced electronics, in the ABM role these components have long ago separated from the warheads by the time they come within range of the interceptors.
The electronics in the warheads themselves tend to be very simple, and hardening them was one of the many issues studied in the s. Lithium-6 hydride Li6H is cited as being used as a countermeasure to reduce the vulnerability and "harden" nuclear warheads from the effects of externally generated neutrons.
Radiation hardening of the warhead's electronic components as a countermeasure to high altitude neutron warheads somewhat reduces the range that a neutron warhead could successfully cause an unrecoverable glitch by the transient radiation effects on electronics TREE effects. At very high altitudes, at the edge of the atmosphere and above it, another effect comes into play. At lower altitudes, the x-rays generated by the bomb are absorbed by the air and have mean free paths on the order of meters.
But as the air thins out, the x-rays can travel further, eventually outpacing the area of effect of the neutrons. In exoatmospheric explosions, this can be on the order of 10 kilometres 6. In this sort of attack, it is the x-rays promptly delivering energy on the warhead surface that is the active mechanism; the rapid ablation or "blow off" of the surface creates shock waves that can break up the warhead. In November , during the planning stages of Operation Hammer of God , British Labour peer Lord Gilbert suggested that multiple enhanced radiation reduced blast ERRB warheads could be detonated in the mountain region of the Afghanistan-Pakistan border to prevent infiltration.
He proposed to warn the inhabitants to evacuate, then irradiate the area, making it unusable and impassable. Used in this manner, the neutron bomb s , regardless of burst height, would release neutron activated casing materials used in the bomb, and depending on burst height, create radioactive soil activation products. In much the same fashion as the area denial effect resulting from fission product the substances that make up most fallout contamination in an area following a conventional surface burst nuclear explosion, as considered in the Korean War by Douglas MacArthur , it would thus be a form of radiological warfare —with the difference that neutron bombs produce half, or less, of the quantity of fission products relative to the same-yield pure fission bomb.
Radiological warfare with neutron bombs that rely on fission primaries would thus still produce fission fallout, albeit a comparatively cleaner and shorter lasting version of it in the area than if air bursts were used, as little to no fission products would be deposited on the direct immediate area, instead becoming diluted global fallout.
However the most effective use of a neutron bomb with respect to area denial would be to encase it in a thick shell of material that could be neutron activated, and use a surface burst. In this manner the neutron bomb would be turned into a salted bomb ; a case of zinc , produced as a byproduct of depleted zinc oxide enrichment, would for example probably be the most attractive for military use, as when activated, the zinc so formed is a gamma emitter, with a half life of days.
With considerable overlap between the two devices, the prompt radiation effects of a pure fusion weapon would similarly be much higher than that of a pure-fission device: approximately twice the initial radiation output of current standard fission-fusion-based weapons. The latter fission device has a higher kinetic energy-ratio per unit of reaction energy released, which is most notable in the comparison with the D-T fusion reaction. Scratch the beam weapon, then.
But at least deploying a particle beam generator would not do our own side any great harm, and that is more than can be said for the neutron bomb. It produces heat, blast and fall-out as well as radiation, and a lot of all of them. The only thing that makes it special is that it produces a higher proportion of radiation than other types. So it is not, by any stretch of the imagination, the dreamed "clean" bomb that will selectively kill all your enemies and leave their cities and machines and farms intact.
It has one special property, though. It is the only weapon I can think of that makes your enemy more dangerous after you have used it than before. The best way to see the reason for this is to draw some circles on the nearest polka-dotted surface, perhaps your kitchen linoleum. Draw five concentric circles, with radii of one foot, eighteen inches, two feet, two and a half feet and three feet. If you let each foot represent yards, your smallest, innermost circle contains an area representing some , square yards.
This is your area immediately around ground zero. It is also the only place where the neutron bomb works exactly as advertised, so cherish it. Perhaps you have forty polka-dots in that inner circle. Let each one stand for enemy soldiers, so that you have a combat brigade of 4, men, in tanks and out of them, in that area.
You have wiped them out. All four thousand of them are effectively dead men. Every one will have received an average of 18, rads grays of whole-body exposure , and so they are either dead or in coma within five minutes. The ones that don't die at once will surely do so within twenty-four hours. None of them will ever fight again. In the ring between the one-foot and eighteen-inch circles you probably have fifty dots, representing 5, other men.
They're out of it, too, having received some 8, rads 80 grays each, but they may not die for 48 hours. You probably don't have to worry about any of them for long, but a few may be able to function briefly. Between the inch and two-foot circles the range from to yards in the real world you probably have 70 polka-dots, representing 7, men.
These are surely dead men, too. But now we come to the real problem. They will take a while to die. They are knocked out in five minutes, even inside a tank. But then they recover briefly. They can operate quite normally for a period of several hours, sometimes longer, before relapsing and ultimately dying within 48 to 96 hours of their rad 30 gray dose.
Between the two-foot and thirty-inch circles you have 90 polka-dots, or 9, men. They have received rads 6. At first they are impaired but still functioning. That lasts for a couple of hours, then they begin a slow decline. Most will be dead in a matter of weeks. The rest will die later, and worse, of cancer.
And between the thirty-inch and three-foot circles you have polka-dots, representing 11, men, who have received only rads 2. For hours or even days they will seem essentially normal. Their fighting ability will be unimpaired. But they are doomed, and they know it. Most will be dead within a few months.
Almost all of the rest will never be well again, and will die of their ailments sooner or later. Of course, beyond the three-foot circle you have a lot of other people, many of whom will also be damaged and some of whom will also die, but not quickly. How many there will be is a matter of prevailing winds and the path the radioactive plume takes.
Some of them may well be soldiers, or civilians, on the side that deploys the weapon. To put it another way, out of every thousand casualties within a radius of a mile from ground zero, about will be knocked out within five minutes, dying then or shortly thereafter.
But about will be killed, and know they have been killed, and still be able to function—which means to fight—for some time afterward. There is a name for soldiers like these. They are called " kamikazes. Most people don't want to die, and so the fiercest attack is blunted by some residual instinct for self-preservation.
These people have none. We have had bitter experience of what kamikazes can do. In , when the United States forces had effectively driven the Japanese off the sea and out of the air, a handful of these doomed warriors nearly won a battle against odds in materiel and men of at least a hundred to one. Only a few hundred Japanese participated in the kamikaze attacks. Every time we dropped a one-kiloton neutron bomb on a troop concentration we would be creating perhaps 25, of them.
It is a one or two kiloton nuclear weapon. Apart from its radiation effects, it will convert a large piece of territory into something that looks a lot like Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The main difference is that the odds are that it would be employed in relatively open territory rather than on a city. But cities can be rebuilt rather quickly. Farms, forests and grazing lands cannot.
A coniferous forest would take three centuries to recover completely. Hardwood would take almost as long; tundra, which is exceptionally fragile, even longer. Even grasslands would not become fully productive again for a generation or two. So the neutron bomb is not very clean—or very desirable on any count, when you take into account its capacity for converting ordinary troops into something like Ali Ben Hassan's hashish-filled suicide squads. You will also occasionally find references to a nasty weapon called a " cobalt bomb ".
This is technically termed a "salted bomb". It is not used for spacecraft to spacecraft combat, it is only used for planetary bombardment. The purpose is to render the land downwind of ground-zero so radioactive that it will be unsafe to enter for the next few thousand years. They are spiteful weapons, sending the message that if the attacker cannot have the land, then nobody can have it. They are enhanced-fallout weapons, with jackets of cobalt or zinc to generate large quantities of deadly radioactive cobalt or zinc isotope dust.
The warhead proper will probably be a neutron bomb : since the more neutrons emitted by the warhead, the more of the jacket will be neutron-activated into radioactive isotopes. Suggested elements include cobalt, gold, tantalum, zinc, and sodium. The idea is to use as a jacket some element that will neutron activate into an isotope which is a high intensity gamma ray emitter with a long half-life.
Please note the difference between a "salted bomb" and a " dirty bomb ". A dirty bomb is an ordinary chemical explosive in a small bag of ground-up radioactive material. The chemical explosion merely sprays the powdered plutonium or whatever all over the city block.
Strictly a terrorist weapon, it is pretty worthless as a military weapon. A salted bomb is a nuclear warhead designed to make a nuclear explosion that will spread millions of bagfulls of fallout that is thousands of times more radioactive that mere powdered plutonium over a quarter of a continent.
Term comes from metaphor " sowing the Earth with salt ". A salted bomb is a nuclear weapon designed to function as a radiological weapon , producing enhanced quantities of radioactive fallout , rendering a large area uninhabitable. The term is derived both from the means of their manufacture, which involves the incorporation of additional elements to a standard atomic weapon, and from the expression "to salt the earth ", meaning to render an area uninhabitable for generations.
His intent was not to propose that such a weapon be built, but to show that nuclear weapon technology would soon reach the point where it could end human life on Earth. No intentionally salted bomb has ever been atmospherically tested, and as far as is publicly known, none has ever been built. However, the UK tested a one- kiloton bomb incorporating a small amount of cobalt as an experimental radiochemical tracer at their Tadje testing site in Maralinga range, Australia, on September 14, The triple " taiga " nuclear salvo test, as part of the preliminary March Pechora—Kama Canal project, converted significant amounts of stable cobalt to radioactive cobalt by fusion-generated neutron activation and this product is responsible for about half of the gamma dose measured at the test site in The experiment was regarded as a failure and not repeated.
A salted bomb should not be confused with a " dirty bomb ", which is an ordinary explosive bomb containing radioactive material which is spread over the area when the bomb explodes. A salted bomb is able to contaminate a much larger area than a dirty bomb. Salted versions of both fission and fusion weapons can be made by surrounding the core of the explosive device with a material containing an element that can be converted to a highly radioactive isotope by neutron bombardment.
When the bomb explodes, the element absorbs neutrons released by the nuclear reaction, converting it to its radioactive form. The explosion scatters the resulting radioactive material over a wide area, leaving it uninhabitable far longer than an area affected by typical nuclear weapons. In a salted hydrogen bomb , the radiation case around the fusion fuel , which normally is made of some fissionable element , is replaced with a metallic salting element.
Salted fission bombs can be made by replacing the neutron reflector between the fissionable core and the explosive layer with a metallic element. The energy yield from a salted weapon is usually lower than from an ordinary weapon of similar size as a consequence of these changes. The radioactive isotope used for the fallout material would be a high-intensity gamma ray emitter, with a half-life long enough that it remains lethal for an extended period.
It would also have to have a chemistry that causes it to return to earth as fallout, rather than stay in the atmosphere after being vaporized in the explosion. Another consideration is biological: radioactive isotopes of elements normally taken up by plants and animals as nutrition would pose a special threat to organisms that absorbed them, as their radiation would be delivered from within the body of the organism.
Radioactive isotopes that have been suggested for salted bombs include gold , tantalum , zinc , and cobalt Physicist W. Clark looked at the potential of such devices and estimated that a 20 megaton bomb salted with sodium would generate sufficient radiation to contaminate , square miles , km 2 an area that is slightly larger than Spain or Thailand, though smaller than France.
Given the intensity of the gamma radiation , not even those in basement shelters could survive within the fallout zone. However, the short half-life of sodium 15 h would mean that the radiation would not spread far enough to be a true doomsday weapon. A cobalt bomb was first suggested by Leo Szilard , who publicly sounded the alarm against the possible development of a salted thermonuclear bombs that might annihilate mankind in a University of Chicago Round Table radio program on February 26, His comments, as well as those of Hans Bethe , Harrison Brown , and Frederick Seitz the three other scientists who participated in the program , were attacked by the Atomic Energy Commission 's former Chairman David Lilienthal , and the criticisms plus a response from Szilard were published.
Time compared Szilard to Chicken Little while the AEC dismissed his ideas, but scientists debated whether it was feasible or not. Arnold , who concluded that it was. Clark suggested that a 50 megaton cobalt bomb did have the potential to produce sufficient long-lasting radiation to be a doomsday weapon, in theory, but was of the view that, even then, "enough people might find refuge to wait out the radioactivity and emerge to begin again. In the novel On the Beach by Nevil Shute , the death of all humanity is brought about by the detonation of cobalt bombs in the Northern Hemisphere.
In the James Bond film Goldfinger , the villain's plan is to detonate a "particularly dirty" atomic device, salted with cobalt and iodine inside the United States Bullion Depository at Fort Knox , thereby rendering the U. The s movie Beneath the Planet of the Apes featured an atomic bomb that was hypothesized [ citation needed ] to use a cobalt casing.
Also, in the ABC show The Whispers season 1 episode 5, a "salted bomb" was referred to as a nuclear bomb laced with arsenic , also known as "A. The final level of Metro Exodus takes place in the city of Novosibirsk , which the main characters surmise was devastated by a nuclear device salted with cobalt , based on the lack of physical damage to the city yet massive levels of radioactive contamination as well as character dialog. Thermonuclear weapons are typically a mass of fusion fuel with some other items that are ignited to fusion temperatures by a fission bomb "match.
In science fiction one occasionally encounters fusion weapons that contain unobtainium capacitors powering honking huge lasers to ignite fusion. You might save on plutonium, but this is hardly cheaper than conventional fusion warheads.
Finn van Donkelaar has been playing around with another concept. It might be barely possible to ignite a small fusion reaction using chemical explosives. Not out of the question. Not impossible. Sort of. His initial write up is very interesting reading, abet loaded with nasty equations.
He notes it has a lower yield-to-weight ratio compared to conventional fusion warheads which is bad , but has a couple of advantages. Which you can read about in the report. He calculate the device in the diagram above is at the low end of possible yields. Mass of 20 kilograms, length of 45 centimeters, diameter of 8 centimeters, and a yield of kg of TNT. Scaled up to largest reasonably portable size the same design would have a mass of 1. When it comes to the dreaded EMP created by nuclear detonations, matters become somewhat complicated.
Most SF fans have a somewhat superficial understanding of EMP: an evil foreign nation launches an ICBM at the United States, the nuke detonates in the upper atmosphere over the Midwest, an EMP is generated, the EMP causes all stateside computers to explode, all the TVs melt, all the automobile electrical systems short out, all the cell phones catch fire, basically anything that uses electricity is destroyed.
This is true as far as it goes, but when you start talking about deep space warfare, certain things change. Thanks to Andrew Presby for setting me straight on this matter. This EMP can only be generated if there is a Terra strength magnetic field and a tenuous atmosphere present.
A nuke going off in deep space will not generate HEMP. Please be aware, however, if a nuke over Iowa generates a HEMP event, the EMP will travel through the airless vacuum of space just fine and fry any spacecraft that are too close. Secondly, EMP can also be generated in airless space by an e-Bomb , which uses chemical explosives and an armature.
No magnetic field nor atmosphere required. As with all EMPs, once generated they will travel through space and kill spacecraft. HEMP is created when the gamma rays from the nuclear detonation produce Compton electrons in air molecules, and the electrons interact with a magnetic field to produce EMP.
But with SGEMP, gamma rays penetrating the body of the spacecraft accelerated electrons, creating electromagnetic transients. SGEMP impacts space system electronics in three ways. First, x-rays arriving at the spacecraft skin cause an accumulation of electrons there. The electron charge, which is not uniformly distributed on the skin, causes current to flow on the outside of the system.
These currents can penetrate into the interior through various apertures, as well as into and through the solar cell power transmission system. Secondly, x-rays can also penetrate the skin to produce electrons on the interior walls of the various compartments. The resulting interior electron currents generate cavity electromagnetic fields that induce voltages on the associated electronics which produce spurious currents that can cause upset or burnout of these systems.
Finally, x-rays can produce electrons that find their way directly into signal and power cables to cause extraneous cable currents. These currents are also propagated through the satellite wiring harness. The one kiloton bomb at one kilometer only does about 3. One megaton at one kilometer will do 3. At meters our one meg bomb will do 3. The maximum range for impulsive shock is about meters.
But he allows that matters might be different for x-rays and gamma rays due to their extra penetration. First, consider a uniform slab of material subject to uniform irradiation sufficient to cause an impulsive shock. A thin layer will be vaporized and a planar shock will propagate into the material. Assuming that the shock is not too intense i.
However, as the shock reaches the back side of the slab, it will be reflected. This will set up stresses on the rear surface, which tends to cause pieces of the rear surface to break off and fly away at velocities close to the shock wave velocity somewhat reduced, of course, due to the binding energy of all those chemical bonds you need to break in order to spall off that piece.
This spallation can cause significant problems to objects that don't have anything separating them from the hull. Modern combat vehicles take pains to protect against spallation for just this reason using an inner layer of Kevlar or some such.
Now, if the material or irradiance is non-uniform, there will be stresses set up inside the hull material. If these exceed the strength of the material, the hull will deform or crack. This can cause crumpling, rupturing, denting really big dents , or shattering depending on the material and the shock intensity. For a sufficiently intense shock, shock heating will melt or vaporize the hull material, with obvious catastrophic results.
At higher intensities, the speed of radiation diffusion of the nuke x-rays can exceed the shock speed, and the x-rays will vaporize the hull before the shock can even start. Roughly speaking, any parts of the hull within the diameter of an atmospheric fireball will be subject to this effect. First off, the weapon itself. A nuclear explosion in space, will look pretty much like a Very Very Bright flashbulb going off.
The effects are instantaneous or nearly so. There is no fireball. The gaseous remains of the weapon may be incandescent, but they are also expanding at about a thousand kilometers per second, so one frame after detonation they will have dissipated to the point of invisibility.
Just a flash. The effects on the ship itself, those are a bit more visible. If you're getting impulsive shock damage, you will by definition see hot gas boiling off from the surface. Again, the effect is instantaneous, but this time the vapor will expand at maybe one kilometer per second, so depending on the scale you might be able to see some of this action.
But don't blink; it will be quick. Next is spallation - shocks will bounce back and forth through the skin of the target, probably tearing chunks off both sides. Some of these may come off at mere hundreds of meters per second. And they will be hot, red- or maybe even white-hot depending on the material. To envision the appearance of this part, a thought experiment.
Or, heck, go ahead and actually perform it. Start with a big piece of sheet metal, covered in a fine layer of flour and glitter. Shine a spotlight on it, in an otherwise-dark room. Then whack the thing with a sledgehammer, hard enough for the recoil to knock the flour and glitter into the air. The haze of brightly-lit flour is your vaporized hull material, and the bits of glitter are the spallation. Scale up the velocities as needed, and ignore the bit where air resistance and gravity brings everything to a halt.
Next, the exposed hull is going to be quite hot, probably close to the melting point. So, dull red even for aluminum, brilliant white for steel or titanium or most ceramics or composites. After this, if the shock is strong enough, the hull is going to be materially deformed. For this, take the sledgehammer from your last thought experiment and give a whack to some tin cans.
Depending on how hard you hit them, and whether they are full or empty, you can get effects ranging from mild denting at weak points, crushing and tearing, all the way to complete obliteration with bits of tin-can remnant and tin-can contents splattered across the landscape. Again, this will be much faster in reality than in the thought experiment.
And note that a spacecraft will have many weak points to be dented, fragile bits to be torn off, and they all get hit at once. If the hull is of isogrid construction, which is pretty common, you might see an intact triangular lattice with shallow dents in between. Bits of antenna and whatnot, tumbling away. Finally, secondary effects. Part of your ship is likely to be pressurized, either habitat space or propellant tank.
Coolant and drinking water and whatnot, as well. With serious damage, that stuff is going to vent to space. You can probably see this happening air and water and some propellants will freeze into snow as they escape, BTW. You'll also see the reaction force try to tumble the spacecraft, and if the spacecraft's attitude control systems are working you'll see them try to fight back.
You might see fires, if reactive materials are escaping. But not convection flames, of course. Diffuse jets of flame, or possibly surface reactions. Maybe secondary explosions if concentrations of reactive gasses are building up in enclosed more or less spaces. Crew members are not as durable as spacecraft, since they are vulnerable to neutron radiation. A one megaton Enhanced-Radiation warhead AKA "neutron bomb" will deliver a threshold fatal neutron dose to an unshielded human at kilometers.
There are also reports that ER warheads can transmute the structure of the spacecraft into deadly radioactive isotopes by the toxic magic of neutron activation. Details are hard to come by, but it was mentioned that a main battle tank irradiated by an ER weapon would be transmuted into isotopes that would inflict lethal radiation doses for up to 48 hours after the irradiation.
So if you want to re-crew a spacecraft depopulated by a neutron bomb, better let it cool off for a week or so. For a conventional nuclear weapon i. There are notes on the effects of radiation on crew and electronics here. Back in the 's, rocket scientist came up with the infamous "Orion Drive. Except the tin can is a spacecraft, and the firecracker is a nuclear warhead.
The blast is radiated isotropically, only a small amount actually hits the pusher-plate and does useful work. So they tried to figure out how to channel all the blast in the desired direction. A nuclear shaped charge. Remember that in the vacuum of space, most of the energy of a nuclear warhead is in the form of x-rays. The nuclear device is encased in a radiation case of x-ray opaque material uranium with a hole in the top. This forces the x-rays to to exit only from the hole.
Whereupon they run full tilt into a large mass of beryllium oxide channel filler. The beryllium transforms the nuclear fury of x-rays into a nuclear fury of heat. Perched on top of the beryllium is the propellant: a thick plate of tungsten. The nuclear fury of heat turns the tungsten plate into a star-core-hot spindle-shaped-plume of ionized tungsten plasma.
The x-ray opaque material and the beryllium oxide also vaporize a few microseconds later, but that's OK, their job is done. The tungsten plasma jet hits square on the Orion drive pusher plate, said plate is designed to be large enough to catch all of the plasma. With the reference design of nuclear pulse unit, the plume is confined to a cone of about About this time the representatives of the military who were funding this project noticed that if you could make the plume a little faster and with a narrower cone, it would no longer be a propulsion system component.
It would be a nuclear directed energy weapon. Thus was born Project Casaba-Howitzer. Details are scarce since the project is still classified after all these years. Tungsten has an atomic number Z of When the tungsten plate is vaporized, the resulting plasma jet has a relatively low velocity and diverges at a wide angle Now, if you replace the tungsten with a material with a low Z, the plasma jet will instead have a high velocity at a narrow angle "high velocity" meaning "a recognizable fraction of the speed of light".
The jet angle also grows narrower as the thickness of the plate is reduced. This is undesirable for a propulsion system component because it will destroy the pusher plate , but just perfect for a weapon because it will destroy the enemy ship. The report below suggests that the practical minimum half angle the jet can be focused to is 5. They would also be perfect as an anti-ballistic missile defence.
Which is why project Casaba-Howitzer's name came up a few times in the Strategic Defense Initiative. Casaba Howitzers fired from orbit at ground targets on Terra would be inefficient, which is not the same as "does no damage. Scott Lowther has done some research into a 's design for an Orion-drive battleship. It was to be armed with naval gun turrets, minuteman missiles with city-killing 20 megatons warheads, and Casaba-Howitzer weapons.
It appears that the Casaba-Howitzer charges would be from subkiloton to several kilotons in yield, be launched on pancake booster rockets until they were far enough from the battleship to prevent damage several hundred yards , whereupon they would explode and skewer the hapless target with a spear of nuclear flame.
The battleship would probably carry a stockpile of Casaba-Howitzer weapons in the low hundreds. Three kiltons is 1. Per bolt. Get a copy of the report for more details, including a reconstruction of a Casaba-Howitzer charge. What is the mass and volume of a Casaba-Howitzer charge? Apparently this also is still classified. An Orion Drive nuclear pulse unit would be about 1, kg, have a blast yield of about 29 kilotons, and be a cylinder with a radius of 0.
The volume would therefore be about 0. As previously mentioned a Casaba-Howitzer charge would have a yield ranging from sub-kiloton to a few kilotons, so presumably it would be smaller and of lower mass than a pulse unit. I just got the lastest inside scoop from Scott Lowther. He estimates each Casaba Howitzer charge is about kg and 0.
See details below:. The units were composed of four primary assemblie… the modified small Orion pulse unit, a high-thrust, short-burn solid rocket booster, a inch infrared telescope and a deployable communications module.
All are stored and launched as a During the short boost phase, the freon fluid-injection TVC system directs the unit towards the target and roughly aims it using internally stored data obtained from the warship at the moment of launch. After booster separation the unit deploys the sensor and communication systems.
A high-thrust monopropellant thruster system aims the weapon to within half a degree of the target. The infrared scope detects the target, using reflected laser light projected from the warship ; the cold gas thruster perform final aiming.
Weapons initiation is commanded from the warship after confirmation of target lock. The Casaba-Howitzer was a real concept: a modified pulse unit that fired a jet of plasma. But instead of a jet of fairly dense plasma at a fairly wide angle, Casaba-Howitzer was to fire a lower density jet at a much tighter angle in order to serve as a weapon. Work continued well after the Orion program was terminated.
And that, sadly, is about the sum total of the publicly available information on Casaba-Howitzer. Everything else about it is speculative. So, I speculated. My first generation Casaba-Howitzer weapon is a modification of the pulse unit designed for the small meter Orion. But other areas sort of fall into place on their own. Was Casaba-Howitzer a weapon that would be fired from the ship, like a massive cannon?
Given that the yield for a small pulse unit was a good fraction of a kiloton, trying to contain that energy in any sort of cannon-like object seems futile. So the pulse unit would be fired in free space. Therefore the pulse unit would need to be projected from the ship. In this case, a fast-burning, high-thrust booster similar to a Sprint motor, using Freon injection in the nozzle for thrust vectoring. The rocket would burn for only a second or so, tossing the projectile some considerable distance from the ship.
After burnout, the projectile would unfold. The presumption is that the weapon would be used to take out enemies at ranges of hundreds of kilometers, so it would need precise aim. The projectile would be aided by a laser on the warship; this would illuminate the target, making it stand out from the background, shining as a bright point in the distance.
Computer aiming would be needed; even with a jet velocity of 2. In that time the jet will have radiated away much of its heat as well as spreading out some distance, so the target will be hit with a shotgun blast of tiny particles. A thin cloud of dust moving at one tenth of one percent the speed of light. The weapon has three attitude control systems.
The first is the thrust vector control system on the booster; this is enough to get the unit within a few degrees of the target. The second system is a hydrazine monoprop thruster system which, once the system is properly deployed, quickly gets the weapon within a fraction of a degree of the target.
Read how a transistor is used as a switch and an amplifier, their working principle with suitable diagrams. Explore more related concepts at BYJU'S. An OpAmp or an Operational Amplifier is a high gain voltage amplifier with a differential input and a single-ended output. Physics (URM - Projectile Launch) projectile launch this report aims to recognize and exemplify the horizontal position, identify the range in projectile.